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MCD- Cell Pathology -Laz > Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cancer Deck (13)
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1

What is neoplasm?

Abnormal mass of tissue growth
Growth continues after stimulus is removed

2

What do we call the cancer cells?

Parenchyma

3

What is stroma?

Tissue around the cancer cels that consists of connective tissue, blood vessels, macrophages

4

How to tell if a toy our is benign or malignant by name?

Benign tumours end in -Oma
Except sarcoma and carcinoma

5

Difference between malignant and benign tumours

Malignant = undifferentiated cells
Grow faster
Infiltrate basal Latina
Metastasise

6

4 ways of metastasis

Lymphatic
Haematogenous
Body cavity
Contiguous = touching

7

3 ways of inheriting cancer

Autosomal dominant = familial adenomatous polyposis
Defective DNA repair = Xeroderma pigmentosum
Familial cancer syndrome = unknown cause but runs in family e.e multiple endocrine neoplasia

8

Non hereditary cancers

Risk factor e.g. liver cirrhosis and HCC
Inflammation and cytokines can cause cancer

9

What is carcinogenesis?

Acquiring malignancy in over a period of time due to multiple mutation

10

Carcinogens

Chemicals= may need to be processed elder they are carcinogenic
Viruses e.g. HPV cervical cancer
Radiation UV

11

4 regulatory genes and examples of cancers caused by loss of regulation in each

Oncogene = burkitts lymphoma mYC
Tumour suppressor genes = BRCA 1/2
DNA repair genes = genomic instability syndrome
Apoptosis = bcl2 unregulated in lymphomas

12

Diagnosis and testing

Biopsy
Fine needle aspiration
Scans
PCR / FISH

13

Difference between grading and staging?

Grading = histological , based on differentiation
Staging = size, spread to lymph nodes, metastasis = for patient
STAGING IS MORE USEFUL!!