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MCD- Cell Pathology -Laz > Cell injury > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cell injury Deck (15)
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1

List the EIGHT causes of cell injury

Oxygen deprivation
Inflammation
Chemical Agents
Genetics
Infection
Nutritional imbalances
Physical Agents
Ageing

2

What four intracellular mechanisms are particularly vulnerable to cell injury?

Cell membrane integrity
Protein synthesis
ATP Generation
Integrity of the genetic apparatus

3

Define Atrophy.

Shrinking in the size of a cell or organ by the loss of cell substance.

4

Define Hypertrophy.

Increase in the size of cells and, consequently, an increase in the size of the organ

5

Define Hyperplasia

Increase in the number of cells in an organ

6

Define Metaplasia

A REVERSIBLE change in which one adult cell type is replaced with another

7

Define Dysplasia.

Pre-cancerous cells which show the genetic and cytological features of malignancy but not invading the underlying tissue

8

Define Ulcer.

A local defect, or excavation of the surface, of an organ or tissue, produced by sloughing of necrotic inflammatory tissue

9

What are the two physiological causes of hyperplasia?

Hormonal (e.g. oestrogenic wave of proliferation)
Compensatory

10

What are two light microscopic changes associated with reversible injury?

Fatty change
Cellular swelling

11

Define Necrosis

Confluent cell death associated with inflammation

12

What are the four types of necrosis?

Coagulative, Liquefactive, caseous and fat

13

What disease is fat necrosis associated with and why?

Acute pancreatitis - release of lipases that break down triglycerides into free fatty acids and glycerol. Free fatty acids associate with calcium deposits

14

Describe some uses of apoptosis

Embryogenesis - lumen of intestine
Removal of auto-reactive T and B cells
Cell deletion in proliferating populations

15

Describe three differences between apoptosis and necrosis.

Apoptosis is an active process (required energy) Apoptosis can be physiological Apoptosis is not associated with inflammation