Cancer Invasion and Metastasis Flashcards Preview

SSC- Biology of Cancer > Cancer Invasion and Metastasis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cancer Invasion and Metastasis Deck (52)
Loading flashcards...
1

When is a tumour considered to be benign? 

If the neoplastic cells are clustered in a single mass

2

When is a tumour considered to be malignant? 

Once the tumour has undergone metastasis 

3

How many different types of tumours are there? 

As many as there are different types of human cells - 200 

4

What does the grouping of a tumour depend on? 

The tissue of origin 

There is increasing use of molecular definitions to stratify cancers 

5

What are benign tumours of epithelial tissues called? 

  • Adenomas
  • Papillomas

 

6

What are malignant tumours of epithelial cells called? 

Carcinomas

7

What are benign connective tissue tumours called? 

  • Lipomas
  • Fibromas
  • Haemangiomas

 

8

What are malignant tumours of connective tissue called? 

Sarcoma

 

9

What are benign tumours of lymphoid tissue called? 

Lymphoid hyperplasia 

10

What are malignant tumours of lymphoid tissue called? 

Lymphoma

11

What are malignant tumours of haemopoietic tissues called? 

Myeloid proliferations

12

What are malignant tumours of haemopoietic cells called? 

Leukaemia 

13

What are benign tumours of germ cells called? 

Teratomas 

14

What are malignant tumours of germ cells called? 

Germinoma

15

Which of the hallmarks of cancer relate to metastasis? 

  • Induction of angiogenesis
  • Activating invasion and metastasis

 

16

What can be determined about tumour metastasis from studies of colon carciogenesis? 

Cancer is a multi-hit disease, with accumulation of genetic changes, and the transition to metastasis occurs at the end, once a lot of damage has already been done 

17

What are the steps in the formation of a metastasise? 

  1. Primary tumour formation
  2. Localised invasion
  3. Intravasation
  4. Transport through circulation
  5. Arrest in microvessels of various organs
  6. Extravasation
  7. Formation of micrometastasis
  8. Colonisation and formation of macrometasis

 

18

What allows localised invasion of a tumour? 

Formation of blood vessels

19

What happens in tumour intravasation? 

Interaction of tumour with platelets, lymphocytes, and other blood components 

20

What must be done at all stages of metastasis? 

Evasion of the immune system 

21

What allows metastasis to be successful despite it being an inefficient process? 

Sheer force of numbers - there are potentially millions of cells circulating

22

What % of disseminated tumour cells survive to be solitary cells in a secondary organ? 

80%

23

What are the potential fates for solitary cells that get into a secondary organ? 

  • Proliferate
  • Viable but dormant
  • Die 

 

24

What % of disseminated tumour cells initiate growth into micrometastases? 

2%

25

What % of disseminated tumour cells persist to grow into macrometastases? 

0.02%

 

26

Give an example of where other types of cells in the microenvironment are involved in metastasis

Tumour associated macrophages promote breast cancer metastasis 

27

How are macrophages involved in breast cancer metastasis? 

A paracrine loop between tumour cells and macrophages is required for tumour cell migration in mammary tumours 

28

Describe the paracrine loop between tumour cells and macrophages required for cell migration in mammary tumours

Tumour cells express CSF-1, which binds to CSF-1 receptor on macrophages and allows them to proliferative and survive. Macrophages express EGF, which binds EGF-receptors on tumour cells 

29

Why is the loss of cell to cell adhesion important in tumour cell metastasis? 

Epithelial cells are very tightly organised with strong cell-cell adhesion, which has to be detatched in order for cells to move

30

What are the different types of adhesions that join cells? 

  • Tight junction
  • Adherens junction
  • Desmosome