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Flashcards in Tutorials Deck (60)
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1

What are the risk factors for prostate cancer?

-Male gender
-African American
-BRCA gene
-Family history

2

How is prostate cancer different in African Americans?

More aggressive

3

What is considered to be a 'family history' of prostate cancer?

Close family member contracting it under 50 years old

4

How does prostate cancer present?

Hesitation
Nocturia

5

What investigations can be done to detect prostate cancer?

-PSA
-DRE
-USS and biopsy

6

What is the problem with PSA?

It is also raised in many other situations, e.g. Age, infection, stones, BPH

7

What is the problem with DRE?

Doesn't feel the transitional zones

8

How is a prostate biopsy carried out?

TRUS system -fires biopsy needles through perineum and into the prostate

9

How is prostate cancer treated if it has not metastasised?

Hormone control - testosterone reduction therapy (LH/FSH antagonists)
Prostatectomy
Active surveillance

10

What is the problem with testosterone reduction therapy?

Can loose libido, become impotent, and get osteoporosis

11

What is the prognosis of prostate cancer?

Earlier presenting ones tend to be more aggressive, late presenting ones tend to be benign

12

Where does prostate cancer like to metastasise to?

Bone

13

Describe the difference between primary bone cancer and prostatic metastases to bone?

Bone cancer normally lowers bone density, but prostate metastasised cancer tends to form sclerotic bone metastases, leading to greater deposition of bone + white x-ray appearance

14

What are the risk factors for breast cancer?

Hereditary (BRCA 1/2, Li-Fraumeni)
Oestrogen exposure
Georgraphy
Radiation
Klinefelter's syndrome

15

What can increase oestrogen exposure?

Early menarche
Late menopause
Obesity post menopause

16

Geographically, where is breast cancer more common?

West

17

How does breast cancer present?

Abnormal screening result
Skin changes
Nipple changes/discharge
Lump

18

When is breast cancer screening offered?

Between 50-70 years

19

What conditions might cause calcifications on mammography?

DCIS
Papillary lesion
Cancer
Fibroadenomas
Normal breast tissue

20

What investigations follow a positive breast cancer screening?

Fine needle aspiration and cytology or needle biopsy
Invasive lobular carcinoma patients also get MRI scans to pick up any malignancies not otherwise detected

21

What feature on biopsy might indicate breast cancer?

Lack of myoepithelial cells

22

How is breast cancer staged?

TNM

23

How is breast cancer graded?

Bloom-Richardson

24

What receptors to early stage breast tumours tend to have?

Oestrogen receptors

25

What is the result of the presence of oestrogen receptors in a lot of early stage tumours?

Tamoxifen is a viable option

26

What receptor to late stage breast tumours tend to have?

HER2 receptors

27

What is the result of a lot of late stage tumours having HER2 receptors?

Herceptin is a good option

28

When is lymph node dissection given in breast cancer?

When cancer has been shown to spread beyond the axillary nodes

29

What feature to breast cancers that present before menopause tend to have?

Tend to lack HER-2 or oestrogen receptors, meaning no treatment options are really viable

30

What part of the breast structure is affected in ductal or lobular carcinomas?

The epithelium