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Flashcards in Cardiology Deck (62):
1

Allantois --> Urachus becomes what adult structure?

Median Umbilical Ligament

2

Ductus Arteriosus becomes what adult structure?

Ligamentum Arteriosum

3

Ductus Venosus becomes what adult structure?

Ligamentum Venosum

4

Foramen Ovale becomes what adult structure?

Fossa Ovalis

5

Notochord becomes what adult structure?

Nucleus Pulposus

6

Umbilical Arteries become what adult structure?

Medial umbilical Ligaments

7

Umbilical Vein becomes what adult structure?

Ligamentum teres hepatis

8

S3 Heart sound is associated with that?

Increased filling pressures:

Mitral Regurgitation

HF

Dilated Ventricles

(can be normal in kids/young adults)

9

S4 heart sound is associated with what?

Ventricular noncompliance

LV Hypertrophy

Always abnormal

10

Inspiration has what effect on heart sounds?

(increased venous return to RA)

Increases intensity of right heart sounds

11

Hand grip has what effect on heart sounds?

(increased afterload)

Increases intensity of MR, AR, VSD murmurs

Decreases hypertrophic cardiomyopathy murmurs

MVP: later onset of click/murmur

12

Valsalva / Standing up has what effect on heart sounds?

(decreases preload)

Decreases intensity of most murmurs (including AS)

Increases intensity of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy murmur

MVP: earlier onset of click/murmur

13

Rapid squatting has what effet on heart sounds?

(INC VR, INC Preload, INC Afterload)

Decreases intensity of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy murmur

Increases intensity of AS murmur

MVP: later onset of click/murmur

14

Crescendo-decresendo systolic ejection murmur

Loudest at heart base

Radiates to carotids

Can have pulsus parvus et tardus (weak pulses)

Aortic Stenosis

15

Holosystolic, high-pitched blowing murmur

Loudest at apex

Radiates to axilla

Mitral Regurgitation

16

Holosystolic, high-pitched blowing murmur

Loudest near sternal border

Radiates to right sternal border

Tricuspid Regurgitation

17

Late systolic crescendo murmur with midsystolic click

Best hear over apex

Loudest just before S2

Mitral Valve Prolapse

18

Holosystolic, harsh-sounding murmur

Loudest at tricuspid area

Ventricular Septal Defect

19

High-pitched blowing early diastolic decrescendo murmur

Hyperdynamic pulse

Wide pulse pressure

Aortic Regurgitation

(Head bobbing)

20

Opening snap

Delayed rumbling late diastolic murmur

Mitral stenosis

21

Continuous machine-like murmur

Loudest at S2

Left Infraclavicular area

Patent Ductus Arteriosus

22

Inherited disorder of myocardial repolarization, typically due to ion channel defects

Congenital Long QT

23

AD, pure cardiac phenotype congenital long QT syndrome

Romano-Ward Syndrome

24

AR, congenital long QT + sensorineural deafness

Jervell and Lange-Nielsen Syndrome

25

AD

Asian Males

ECG = pseudo RBBB and ST elevations in V1-V3

Brugada Syndrome

26

Most common ventricular pre-excitation syndrome

Abnormally fast accessory conduction pathway from atria to ventricle (bundle of Kent) bypasses the rate-slowing AV node

Delta wave + wide QRS + shortened PR

Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome

27

ECG = Chaotic and eratic baseline, no discrete P waves between irregularly spaced QRS complexes

Irregularly irregular HR

Atrial Fibrillation

28

ECG = Rapid succession of identical, back-to-back atrial depolarization waves

Sawtooth pattern

Atrial Flutter

29

ECG = competely erratic rhythym with no identifiable waves

Ventricular Fibrillation

30

ECG = PR interval is prolonged

1st Degree AV block

31

ECG = Progressive lengthening of PR interval until a beat is "dropped"

2nd Degree Mobitz Type 1 

(Wenckebach)

32

ECG = Dropped beats that are not proceeded by a change in the length of the PR interval

2nd degree AV block Mobitz Type 2

33

ECG = atria and ventricles beat independently of each other

3rd degree AV block (complete)

34

What are the 5 Right to Left Shunts?

Truncus Arteriosus (1 vessel)

Transposition (2 switched vessels)

Tricuspid Atresia (3 = Tri)

Tetralogy of Fallot (4 = Tetra)

TAPVR (5 letters)

35

What are the 4 issues in Tetralogy of Fallot?

PROV

Pulmonary Infundibular Stenosis

RV Hypertrophy

Overriding Aorta

VSD

36

What cardiac defect is associated with EtOH?

VSD, PDA, ASD, Tetralogy of Fallot

37

What cardiac defect is associated with Congenital Rubella?

PDA

Pulmonary Artery Stenosis

Septal Defects

38

What cardiac defect is associated with Down Syndrome?

AV Septal defect (endocardial cushion)

VSD

ASD

39

What cardiac defect is associated with a diabetic mother?

Transposition of the great vessels

40

What cardiac defect is associated with Marfan Syndrome?

MVP

Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm/Dissection

Aortic Regurgitation

41

What cardiac defect is associated with prenatal lithium?

Ebstein Anomaly

42

What cardiac defect is associated with Turner Syndrome?

Bicuspid Aortic Valve

Coarctation of the Aorta

43

What cardiac defect is associated with Williams Syndrome?

Supravalvular Aortic Stenosis

44

What cardiac defect is associated with 22q11 syndromes?

Truncus Arteriosus

Tetralogy of Fallot

45

What is the difference between hypertensive urgency and a hypertensive emergency?

Urgency = without acute end organ damage

Emergency = evidence of acute end organ damage

46

Abdominal aortic aneurysm is associated with what pathogenesis?

Atherosclerosis

47

Thoracic aortic aneurysm is associated with what pathogenesis?

Cystic Medial Degeneration

48

ECG STEMI in leads V1-V2

Anteroseptal (LAD)

49

ECG STEMI in leads V3-V4

Anteroapical (distal LAD)

50

ECG STEMI in leads V5-V6

Anterolateral (LAD or LCX)

51

ECG STEMI in leads I, aVL

Lateral (LCX)

52

ECG STEMI in leads II, III, aVF

Inferior (RCA)

53

ECG STEMI in leads V7-V9

ST Depression in V1-V3 with tall R waves

Posterior (PDA)

54

Endomyocardial fibrosis with a prominent eosinophilic infiltrate

Loffler Syndrome

55

What drugs DECREASE MORTALITY in patients with HF?

ACEI/ARBs

B-blockers

Spironalactone

56

What is the difference between Acute and Subacute bacterial endocarditis?

Acute = large vegetations on previously normal valves, rapid onset; staph aureus

Subacute = smaller vegetations of previously damaged valves, gradual onset; strep viridans

57

What type of endocarditis has vegetations on both sides of the valves? What is it associated with?

Libmann Sacks Endocarditis

SLE

58

Rheumatic Fever is what type of hypersensitivity reaction?

Type 2

59

What is Beck's Triad for cardiac tamponade?

Hypotension

Distended neck veins

Distant heart sounds

60

Decrease in amplitude of systolic BP by > 10 mmHg during inspiration

Pulsus Paradoxus

61

Tertiary syphilis disrupts what part of the aorta?

Vasa Vasorum of aorta --> atrophy of vessel wall and dilatation of aorta and valve ring

62

INC in Jugular Venous Pressure on inspiration (normally it should drop)

Kussmaul Sign