Hematology/Oncology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hematology/Oncology Deck (57):
1

Anisocytosis

RBCs of varying sized

2

Poikilocytosis

RBCs of varying shapes

3

Bluish color on Wright-Giemsa stain of reticulocytes represents what?

Residual ribosomal RNA

4

vWF receptor

Gp1b

5

Fibrinogen receptor

Gp2b/3a

6

Neutrophil chemotactic factors

C5a

IL-8

LTB4

Kallikrein

Platelet-activating Factor

7

What cell differentiates into macrophages?

Monocytes

8

Macrophages are activated by what?

Gamma-interferon

9

What binds to macrophages to initiate septic shock? Where does it bind?

Lipid A from bacterial LPS

Binds to CD14 ON macrophages

10

Causes of eosinophilia

NAACP

Neoplasia

Asthma

Allergic process

Chronic adrenal insufficiency

Parasites (invasive)

11

What 2 substances are produced by Eosinophils?

Histaminase

Major basic protein (helminthotoxin)

12

Basophils contain/release what 3 substances?

Heparin

Histamine

Leukotrienes

13

Basophilia is uncommon, but can be a sign of what?

CML

(myeloproliferative disease)

14

Mast cells are involved in what type of hypersensitivity reaction?

Type 1

15

Mast cells bind IgE how?

Via Fc portion of IgE membrane

16

Mast cells release what 4 things?

Histamine

Heparin

Tryptase

Eosinophil chemotactic factors

17

What prevents mast cells degranulation?

Cromolyn Sodium

(used for asthma prophylaxis)

18

Langerhans cells are what?

Dendritic cells in the skin

19

Plasma cell cancer

Multiple Myeloma

20

Clock-face chromatin

Eccentric nucleus

Abundant RER

Well-developed Golgi Apparatus

Found in Bone Marrow

Plasma Cells

21

Location of Fetal Erythropoiesis

Yolk Sac (3-8 weeks)

Liver (6 wks - birth)

Spleen (10-28 weeks)

BM (18 weeks - adult)

22

What is the benefit of HbF?

HbF has a higher affinity for oxygen because of less avid binding of 2,3-BPG.

This allows HbF to extract oxygen from maternal hemoglobin across the placenta.

23

Blood type = universal recipient of RBCs

AB

24

Blood type = universal recipient of plasma

O

25

Blood type = universal donor of plasma

AB

26

Blood type = universal donor of RBCs

O

27

What is given to an Rh (-) mother? When? Why?

Anti-D IgG (RhoGAM) 

During 3rd trimester

Prevents maternal anti-D IgG production

28

Presentation of ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn

Mild jaundice in the neonate within 24 hours of birth

Treat with phototherapy or exchange transfusion

29

Distance of migration of hemoglobin types on gel electrophoresis (farthest --> shortest)

HbA = glutamic acid (-)

HbS = Valine (neutral)

HbC = Lysine (+)

30

What enzyme uses Vitamin K to activate coag factors?

gamma-glutamyl transferase

31

Factor 5 resistant to inhibition by activated protein C

Factor 5 Leiden Mutation

32

What changes Vitamin K from it's oxidized form to it's reduced form?

Epoxide Reductase

33

Pro-aggregation factors

TXA2

Decreased blood flow

Increased platelet aggregation

34

Anti-aggregation factors

PGi2

NO

Increased blood flow

Decreased platelet aggregation

35

Source of vWF

Weibel-Palade bodies of endothelial cells and alpha granules of platelets

36

Failure of agglutination with Ristocetin assay occurs in what 2 disorders?

von Willenbrand disease

Bernard-Soulier Syndrome

37

Deficiency of Gp2b3a

Glanzmann Thombasthenia

38

Deficiency of Gp1b

Bernard-Soulier Syndrome

39

Acanthocyte

"Spur cell"

Liver disease

Abetalipoproteinemia (cholesterol deregulation)

40

Basophilic Stippling

Lead poisoning

Sideroblastic Anemias

Myelodysplastic Syndromes

41

Dacrocyte

(tear drop cell)

Bone marrow infiltration (myelofibrosis)

RBS "sheds a tear" because it is mechanically squeezed out of its home in the bone marrow.

42

Degmacyte

(bite cell)

G6PD Deficiency

43

Echinocyte

(burr cell)

REGULAR spikes

End stage renal disease

Liver disease

Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency

44

Elliptocyte

 

Hereditary elliptocytosis

Usually asymptomatic

Caused by mutation in genes coding RBC membrane proteins (spektrin)

45

Macro-ovalocyte

Megaloblastic Anemia (with hypersegmented PMNs)

Marrow Failure

46

Ringed Sideroblast

Sideroblastic Anemia

Excess iron in mitochondria

Found IN bone marrow

47

Schistocyte

DIC

TTP/HUS

HELLP syndrome

Mechanical hemolysis (heart valve prosthesis)

*fragmented RBCs*

48

Sickle Cell

Sickle cell anemia

Sickling occurs with dehydration, deoxygenation, and at high altitude

49

Spherocyte

Hereditary Spherocytosis

Drug and infection induced hemolytic anemia

50

Target Cell

HbC disease

Asplenia

Liver disease

Thalassemia

(THAL)

51

Heinz Bodies

G6PD Deficiency

Oxidation of Hb-SH groups to S-S leads to Hb precipitation

(subsequent phagoytic damage to RBC membrane --> bite cells)

CAN HAVE MULTIPLE PER CELL

52

Howell-Jolly Bodies

Functional hyposplenia or asplenia

Basophilic nuclear remnants

(Would normally have been removed from RBCs by splenic macrophages)

ONLY ONE PER CELL

53

Triad:

Iron Deficiency Anemia

Esophageal Webs

Dysphagia

Plummer-Vinson Syndrome

54

Alpha-Thalassemia with CIS deletion prevalent in what popuation?

Asian

55

Alpha-Thalassemia with TRANS deletion prevalent in what population?

African

56

Beta-Thalassemia is prevalent in what population?

Mediterranean

57

Lead inhibits what 2 enzymes?

Ferrochelatase

ALA Dehydratase