RBCs of varying sized
RBCs of varying shapes
Bluish color on Wright-Giemsa stain of reticulocytes represents what?
Residual ribosomal RNA
Neutrophil chemotactic factors
What cell differentiates into macrophages?
Macrophages are activated by what?
What binds to macrophages to initiate septic shock? Where does it bind?
Lipid A from bacterial LPS
Binds to CD14 ON macrophages
Causes of eosinophilia
Chronic adrenal insufficiency
What 2 substances are produced by Eosinophils?
Major basic protein (helminthotoxin)
Basophils contain/release what 3 substances?
Basophilia is uncommon, but can be a sign of what?
Mast cells are involved in what type of hypersensitivity reaction?
Mast cells bind IgE how?
Via Fc portion of IgE membrane
Mast cells release what 4 things?
Eosinophil chemotactic factors
What prevents mast cells degranulation?
(used for asthma prophylaxis)
Langerhans cells are what?
Dendritic cells in the skin
Plasma cell cancer
Well-developed Golgi Apparatus
Found in Bone Marrow
Location of Fetal Erythropoiesis
Yolk Sac (3-8 weeks)
Liver (6 wks - birth)
Spleen (10-28 weeks)
BM (18 weeks - adult)
What is the benefit of HbF?
HbF has a higher affinity for oxygen because of less avid binding of 2,3-BPG.
This allows HbF to extract oxygen from maternal hemoglobin across the placenta.
Blood type = universal recipient of RBCs
Blood type = universal recipient of plasma
Blood type = universal donor of plasma
Blood type = universal donor of RBCs
What is given to an Rh (-) mother? When? Why?
Anti-D IgG (RhoGAM)
During 3rd trimester
Prevents maternal anti-D IgG production
Presentation of ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn
Mild jaundice in the neonate within 24 hours of birth
Treat with phototherapy or exchange transfusion
Distance of migration of hemoglobin types on gel electrophoresis (farthest --> shortest)
HbA = glutamic acid (-)
HbS = Valine (neutral)
HbC = Lysine (+)
What enzyme uses Vitamin K to activate coag factors?
Factor 5 resistant to inhibition by activated protein C
Factor 5 Leiden Mutation
What changes Vitamin K from it's oxidized form to it's reduced form?
Decreased blood flow
Increased platelet aggregation
Increased blood flow
Decreased platelet aggregation
Source of vWF
Weibel-Palade bodies of endothelial cells and alpha granules of platelets
Failure of agglutination with Ristocetin assay occurs in what 2 disorders?
von Willenbrand disease
Deficiency of Gp2b3a
Deficiency of Gp1b
Abetalipoproteinemia (cholesterol deregulation)
(tear drop cell)
Bone marrow infiltration (myelofibrosis)
RBS "sheds a tear" because it is mechanically squeezed out of its home in the bone marrow.
End stage renal disease
Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency
Caused by mutation in genes coding RBC membrane proteins (spektrin)
Megaloblastic Anemia (with hypersegmented PMNs)
Excess iron in mitochondria
Found IN bone marrow
Mechanical hemolysis (heart valve prosthesis)
Sickle cell anemia
Sickling occurs with dehydration, deoxygenation, and at high altitude
Drug and infection induced hemolytic anemia
Oxidation of Hb-SH groups to S-S leads to Hb precipitation
(subsequent phagoytic damage to RBC membrane --> bite cells)
CAN HAVE MULTIPLE PER CELL
Functional hyposplenia or asplenia
Basophilic nuclear remnants
(Would normally have been removed from RBCs by splenic macrophages)
ONLY ONE PER CELL
Iron Deficiency Anemia
Alpha-Thalassemia with CIS deletion prevalent in what popuation?
Alpha-Thalassemia with TRANS deletion prevalent in what population?
Beta-Thalassemia is prevalent in what population?
Lead inhibits what 2 enzymes?