Cardiovascular and Respiratory Flashcards Preview

OSCE Pharmacology > Cardiovascular and Respiratory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular and Respiratory Deck (33):
1

Give 7 modifiable risk factors for cvs disease.

Hypertension - over 140/90
Hyperlipidaemia - total cholesterol/HDL over 4.5 and triglycerides over 1.5
Diabetes
Smoking
Alcohol
Low exercise
Stress

2

Give 5 complications of hypertension

Stroke
MI
Heart failure
Kidney failure
Retinopathy

3

Give as many causes of secondary hypertension as you can.

High renin due to:
High sympathetic - Phaechromocytoma
Low renal perfusion - renal artery stenosis
Low GFR - renal failure

High aldosterone effect - Cushing's and Conn's

Preeclampsia

4

How would you treat hypertension?

Young, diabetes, ckd
1. Ace
2. Add Ca channel or diuretic

Or if older or black
1. Ca channel
2. Add diuretic

5

What would a pacemaker look like on inspection?

Lump around second intercostal space mid clavicular line

6

What is the name of a scar which runs down the middle of the chest? What might cause it?

Median sternotomy scar

CABG (especially if leg scar)
Valve repair or replacement
Congenital defect

7

How would you listen for aortic stenosis? What would it sound like?

Late systolic murmur
Crescendo

Radiates to carotid.

8

How would you listen for mitral stenosis? What would it sound like?

Mid diastolic

Apex with the bell and lean

9

How would you listen for mitral regurgitation? What would it sound like?

Pan systolic

Axilla

10

How would you listen for aortic regurgitation? What would it sound like?

Diastolic

Left sternal edge lean forwards and expire

11

Give 6 important causes of AF.

Ischaemic heart (post MI)
Hypertension
Mitral regurgitation
Pneumonia
Thyrotoxicosis
Alcohol

12

Give two causes of an irregularly irregular pulse and how to differentiate them.

AF
Ventricular ectopic beats

Ventricular ectopic beats will disappear in exercise

13

Give 3 causes of peripheral cyanosis

Reynauds
Peripheral vascular disease
Heart failure

14

Give 2 causes of central cyanosis.

Right to left cardiac shunt
Hypoxic lung disease

15

What might cause an elevated JVP?

Right heart failure
PE
Cardiac tamponade
Tension pneumothorax

16

What are the waves of the JVP? What does it mean if they are large?

A - atria contracting. If large complete heart block

V - tricuspid regurgitation

17

Give four important causes of heart failure.

Pump failure: MI, arrhythmia
High preload: valve regurgitation
High after load: hypertension, valve stenosis
Cor pulmonale

18

Give some of the stigmata of infective endocarditis.

Clubbing
Splinter haemorrhages
Splenomegaly
Osler nodes
Janeway lesions

19

Give some complications that occur with prosthetic valves.

Infective endocarditis
Thrombosis
Warfarin related problems

20

Give 4 unmodifiable risk factors for cvs disease?

Age
Sex
Ethnicity - South Asian
Family history

21

What are the principal cardio-respiratory causes of clubbing?

Lung Cancer
Interstitial lung disease (inc TB, sarcoidosis)
Bronchiectasis
Infective endocarditis

22

What does a flapping tremor indicate?

Hypercapnia

Could be type 2 respiratory failure, renal failure, or hepatic failure

23

What are the signs of anaemia?

Conjunctival pallor
Peripheral cyanosis
Cold hands
Bounding pulse
Large smooth tongue - glossitis

24

What might cause a bounding pulse?

Aortic regurgitation

Hypercapnia
Anaemia

Septic shock
Anaphylactic shock


25

What might cause hyperinflation of the chest?

COPD
Asthma

26

What might cause a mediastinal shift?

Tension Pneumothorax
Complete lung collapse (atelectasis)
Big pleural effusion

27

What might sound dull to percussion? What might sound hyper resonant?

Dull - fibrosis/consolidation
Stony dull - fluid

Hyper resonant - air

28

What causes consolidation in the lung?

Transudate
Exudate
Blood
Inflammation and fibrosis

29

What are the signs of hyperinflation of the chest?

Barrel appearance
Reduced cricosternal distance
Increased AP diameter
Hyper resonant to percussion

30

Give 3 causes of bilateral crackles.

Heart failure - pulmonary oedema
ILD
Cystic fibrosis

31

Give 5 causes of ILD

Idiopathic
Sarcoidosis
SLE
Asbestos
Drug induced - methotrexate, Amiodarone, nitrofurantoin, cisplatin

32

Give 3 causes of a transudative pleural effusion.

Heart failure
Cirrhosis
Hypo albumen

33

Give 3 examples of an exudative pleural effusion.

Infection
Cancer
PE