GI Flashcards Preview

OSCE Pharmacology > GI > Flashcards

Flashcards in GI Deck (20)
1

What complications can arise from portal hypertension?

Caput medusa
Oesophageal varices
Ascites

2

Give 3 transudative causes of Ascites.

Chronic liver disease
Right heart failure
Hypo albumen

3

Give 4 exudative causes of Ascites.

Peritonitis
Pancreatitis
TB
Cancer

4

What are the signs of chronic liver disease?

Clubbing
Palmar erythema
Leukonychia
Metabolic flap
Jaundice
Spider naevi
Hepatomegaly
Ascites
Signs of right heart failure (JVP)

5

Why do we look for a JVP in the GI examination?

Because right heart failure is a cause of chronic liver disease.
JVP is a sign of right heart failure.

6

Give the most common causes of hepatosplenamegaly.

Viral hepatitis
Alcoholic liver disease
Malaria and Epstein Barr
Haemolytic anaemia
Leukaemia and lymphoma

7

What are the causes of gynaecomastia?

Dialysis
Chronic liver disease
Oestrogen secreting tumour
Klinefelters
Drugs - digoxin, spironolactone, isoniazid

8

What is a direct inguinal hernia?

Hernia that protrudes straight through Hesselback's triangle

9

What is an indirect inguinal hernia?

Hernia that travels through the inguinal canal

10

Is an indirect or direct hernia more common? Why?

Indirect because it follows the path of the processus vaginalis during the descent of the testes.

11

What are the boundaries of the inguinal canal?

Deep and superficial inguinal rings
Posterior and roof - transversalis fascia
Anterior - internal oblique
Floor - lacunar and inguinal ligaments

12

What might cause hypo active bowel sounds?

Constipation
Opiates
Anaesthesia

13

What might cause hyper active bowel sounds?

Diarrhoea
IBD
Bleed
Bowel obstruction (high pitched)

14

What causes Ascites in chronic liver disease?

1. Portal hypertension - hydrostatic pressure
2. Hypoalbumen - oncotic draw

15

What are the stigmata of hyperlipidaemia?

Corneal arcus
Tendon xanthoma
Xanthelasma

16

Give 4 macroscopic differences between UC and Crohn's disease.

Crohn's - skip lesions, cobblestoning UC - continuous
Crohn's - transmural, UC - sub mucosal
Crohn's - fistula and stricture, UC - crypt lesions, pseudopolyps
Crohn's - all GI involvement, UC - proximal spread from rectum

17

Give a radiological difference between UC and Crohn's

Crohn's - string sign
UC - lead pipe

18

Give 3 clinical differences between UC and Crohn's.

Crohn's - made worse by smoking, UC - relieved by smoking
Crohn's - less bleeding, UC - profuse bleeding
Crohn's - peri anal involvement, UC - no perianal involvement

19

What are the most common causes of chronic liver disease?

Alcohol abuse
Hepatitis
Obesity

20

Name 5 common causes of pancreatitis

Gallstones
Alcohol
Post ercp
Idiopathic
Hyperlipidaemia