Flashcards in Cerebral Cortex Deck (68):
The axons from the base of pyramidal neurons release what neurotransmitter?
Where do axons from the base of pyramidal neurons go to in general?
Other parts of the brain or cord
What is an atypical neuron called?
What is the first layer of the cortical layers called?
What is the second layer cortical called?
External Granular layer
What is the third layer cortical called?
What is the fourth layer cortical called?
Internal Granular layer
What is the fifth layer cortical called?
Internal pyramidal Layer
What is the sixth layer cortical layer called?
Distribution of _____, rather than cell body, is indicative of input to the neuron
T/F the six cortical layers are present though out the cerebrum
True- but the thickness varies
T/F the thickness of the six cortical layers is the same throughout the cerebrum
False- it varies but all layers are the same
Cortical layer IV receives input from what?
Cortical layer VI sends out to where?
Cortical layer V sends outputs to where?
Subcoritcal areas ie. The rest of the body
Cortical layer I receives input from where
Association and commissural fibers
Cortical Layers II and Layer III project to?
Other area of the cortext
When are cortical columns established?
During the fetal life
What does it mean when neurons are modality specific?
They are activated selectively from same area but respond to a specific receptor.
The gray matter found on the surface of the outer cortex makes up what portion of the grey matter?
1/3 of the grey matter
What type of cortex is associated with olfaction
What type of cortex is associated with medial and surface structures such as the hippocampus
What type of cortext makes up 90% of the hemispheres and is most developed in humans
When are the synapses made between cortical columns?
During the first year of life
Microglial cells serve what purpose?
Astrocyte cells serve what purpose?
Provide communication network providing integration and regulation of the brain function
help with blood brain barrier
Oligodendrocyte cells serve what purpose?
myelinate CNS axons
Ependymal cells serve that purpose?
line ventricles and central canal of spinal cord
What are the three macroglial cells
The neocortex is made up of what 3 types of fibers?
What fiber type interconnects cortical areas with the same area?
What fiber type interconnects cortical areas within opposite hemispheres?
What fiber type connects corical areas to subcortical structures?
What type of fibers would be found in the anterior commisure and corpus callosum
Projection fibers leave the cerebrum through what?
Before projection fibers leave the cerebrum through the internal capsule the gather around the capsule to what is known as what?
The cortex of the frontal lobe is associated with what?
motor responses, Judgement, foresight, and moods associated with behavior.
The cortex of parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes are associated with what?
reception, and conceptual elaboration of sensory data
What lobe performs cognitive tasks and control voluntary movement?
What lobe handles memory, hearing and language
What lobe enables body sensation and generates understanding of where your body is in space.
What lobe handles vision?
What cortex analyzes environments and make relationships between different stimuli?
How many Brodman's areas are there?
What area is the primary motor cortex?
What area is Broca's speech area?
What area is in charge of programming; complex movements involving multiple joints?
premotor area 6 (lateral surface)
What area is in charge of motor planning and increases in blood flow during mental processing prior to actual movement.
supplementary area 6 (medial surface)
anterior cingulate gyrus area 24
What initiates voluntary saccades?
frontal eye field
What area receives general somatic sensations, input from spindles and GTOs, as well as superficial and deep receptors?
Primary Somatosensory (area 3,1,2; post central gyrus and paracentral lobule)
What lobule is composed of area 5 and 7, and is responsible for integration of sensory modalities such as tactile and visual stimuli for complex somatosensory responses?
Superior lobule of the parietal lobe.
What lobule is composed of supramarginal gyrus (area 40) and angular gyrus (area 39)?
Inferior lobule of the parietal lobe.
What area is in charge of language processing?
Angular Gyrus (area 39)
What area is in charge of integration of tactile, muscular, articular and kinesthetic afferents?
Supramarginal gyrus (area 40)
What area organizes retinal input into blocks of images?
Primary visual cortex (area 17)
What areas are responsible for visual recognition, visual examination, and organizes visual significance?
Areas 18 and 19 (association?)
What are the two pathways that are associated with area 19?
What area is responsive to movement perception, 3-D vision, and spatial sense.
Lateral Pathway (area 19)
What area is responsive to forms (shapes), faces, colors, recognition?
Ventral Pathway (area 19)
What area receives auditory input?
Primary Auditory (areas 41 and 42) transverse gyro of Heschl
What area is in charge of speech perception and integration of visual with auditory input?
Auditory Association area 21 and 22
What area is composed of the uncus and anterior part of parahippocampal gyrus
What area is composed of the parahippocampal area that is in charge of short term memory
What area is composed of the Wernicke's area and angular gyrus in charge of visual and temporal association cornices
What area is composed of opercularis and triangularis?
Expressive speech area 44-45
The right hemisphere is associated with what?
Communicative and emotional prsody
What area has Extensive connections with other lobes, thalamus, and limbic system; concerned with highest brain functions such as abstract thinking, decision-making, anticipating the effects of particular courses of action, and social behavior
Prefrontal cortex (area 9-12)