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Flashcards in Cerebrospinal Fluid Deck (73)
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1

Is the CSF-brain barrier and BBB the same thing?

No

2

What does the CSF-brain barrier relate to>?

The extracerebral fluid that is found within the ventricles and around the brain

3

What are the two main categories of function of the CSF-brain barrier?

- Physical
- Biochemical

4

What are the physical functions of the CSF-brain barrier?

- Cushions and protects the brain from shear forces and impact
- Plays a role in regulating intracerebral blood pressure, thus prevents ischaemia

5

What are the biochemical functions of the CSF-brain barrier?

- Removes waste and toxins from the CNS
- Helps regulate levels of hormones and neurologically active substances

6

What is CSF produced by?

A type of glial cell called an ependymal cell

7

Where is CSF produced?

Mainly in the choroid plexi in the lateral ventricles of the brain

8

Where does CSF exit after it's produced in the choroid plexus?

Through the intraventricular foramen of Munro, into the third ventricle

9

Where does CSF go after the third ventricle?

Through the aqueduct of Sylvius, into the fourth ventricle

10

Where does CSF go after the fourth ventricle?

Down the spinal cord and over the cerebral hemispheres

11

How is CSF reabsorbed into the circulation?

Via the arachnoid villi

12

At what rate is CSF produced?

Around 30ml/hour

13

What is the volume of CSF after age of 2 years?

150ml

14

What volume of CSF is found in the ventricular system after the age of 2?

35ml

15

What might abnormalities of CSF circulation result in?

Hydrocephalus

16

What are the types of hydrocephalus?

- Communicating
- Non-communicating

17

What is the difference between communicating and non-communicating hydrocephalus?

In communicating, there is no obstruction between the ventricles and the subarachnoid space.
In non-communicating, there is a physical obstruction between the ventricles and subarachnoid space

18

What can communicating hydrocephalus be caused by?

- Excessive CSF production
- Impaired CSF reabsorption

19

Is excessive CSF production common?

No, it is rare

20

What can cause excessive CSF production?

Choroid plexus tumour

21

What can cause impaired CSF reabsorption?

Blockage of arachnoid granulations by debris after meningitis or haemorrhage

22

What can non-communicating hydrocephalus be caused by?

- Congenital malformations
- Acquired obstruction

23

Give 2 examples of congenital malformations causing non-communicating hydrocephalus?

- Aqueduct stenosis
- Arnold-Chiari malformations

24

Give an example of an acquired obstruction causing non-communicating hydrocephalus?

Brain tumour

25

What is idiopathic intracranial hypertension?

A special case where the CSF is elevated in the absence of hydrocephalus or intracranial mass lesion

26

What does the treatment of hydrocephalus depend on?

Cause

27

What might the treatment of hydrocephalus include?

- Resection of intracranial obstruction
- Placing of stent in stenosed aqueduct
- Removal of excess CSF

28

How can excess CSF be removed in hydrocephalus?

Insertion of a one-way valved ventriculoperitoneal shunt

29

What does the insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt form?

A direct drainage route for CSF from the cranial vault to the low pressure of the peritoneal cavity

30

What do the clinical features of hydrocephalus depend on?

- Site of the obstruction
- Capacity of the cranial vault to expand