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Flashcards in Upper Limb Examination Deck (27)
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1

What are the steps in upper limb examination?

1. General observation
2. Inspection
3. Tone
4. Power
5. Reflexes
6. Co-ordination
7. Sensation
8. Function

2

What should you look for on general observation in upper limb examination?

Clues such as wheelchair, orthoses or splints, helmet, or dysmorphic features

3

In what position should you inspect the upper limbs?

Child standing

4

What should you inspect for in upper limb examination?

- Posture
- Contractures
- Muscle bulk. wasting, and (pseudo)hypertrophy
- Involuntary muscles and fasciculations
- Scars
- Limb shortening

5

How should you assess tone in upper limb examination?

Whilst holding onto their hand passively, move their arm in unexpected, irregular movements

6

What nerve root provides shoulder abduction?

C5

7

What nerve root provides shoulder adduction?

C7 and 8

8

What nerve root provides elbow flexion?

C5 and 6

9

What nerve root provides elbow extension?

C7 and 8

10

How should you assess power in the hands?

- Squeeze my fingers
- Spread your fingers out wide

11

What reflexes should be tested in upper limb examination?

- Biceps
- Triceps
- Brachioradialis

12

What nerves are involved in the biceps reflex?

C5 and 6

13

What nerves are involved in the triceps reflex?

C7 and 8

14

What nerves are involved in the brachioradialis reflex?

C5 and 6

15

How should you test for co-ordination in upper limb examination?

- Finger nose test
- Hand tapping

16

What does the finger nose test assess for?

Dysmetria

17

How should the finger nose test be performed?

Ask the child to touch their nose with their index finger, then your finger. You must move your finger to different sites at different arm lengths

18

What does hand-tapping assess for?

Dysdiadokinesia

19

How is hand-tapping assessed?

Get them to tap one hand on the back of the other, and alternative between tapping between the palm and back of the hand

20

What dermatome does C4 supply?

Tip of shoulder

21

What dermatome does C5 supply?

Lateral surface of upper arm

22

What dermatome does C6 supply?

Lateral surface of forearm

23

What dermatome does C7 supply?

Radial surface of middle finger

24

What dermatome does C8 supply?

Ulnar border of hand

25

What dermatome does T1 supply?

Medial surface of forearm

26

What dermatome does T2 supply?

Medial surface of upper arm

27

How is the function of the upper limb assessed?

Asking the child to draw/write/pick up objects