Flashcards in Changes In The Water Cycle Over Time Deck (10)
How does summer affect the water cycle?
•leaves, evapotranspiration rates increase
•summer storms are more common as higher temperatures occur
•total rainfall is less
•soils are drier, which allows more infiltration
•baked hard soils and grounds, means that more surface runoff occurs
•low flow conditions in rivers
How does winter affect the water cycle?
•no leaves, so no transportation occurs
•there is decrease in rates of evaporation
•high amounts of precipitation results in a saturated ground and high water table
•water is often locked up in stores of snow or ice
•there are high flow conditions in rivers
What can be a result of extreme weather?
•flooding, water damage to crops, homes, local infrastructure
•vegeation destroyed, causes serious food security issues for locals
•ecosystems damaged, can cause irreparable damage to farm lands and prevent new growth to encourage return of prosperity to the economy
•buildings ruined, serious damage to local community, create the need to provide suitable alternative housing, can reduce levels of sanitation
•economy damaged due to time off work and costs to repair
What is El Nino?
A warm ocean current which occasionally replaces the normal cold Peru current off the Pacific coast of South America, every 2 to 7 years. It can cause extreme variability in different parts of the world.
What can be the result of El Nino?
It can cause drought, which means fewer plants survive so less evapotranspiration occurs, resulting in less precipitation and therefore the continuity of the drought.
What is an example of a human impact on the water cycle?
Destructive farming practices,
What happens after deforestation?
The new vegetation has fewer leaves and shallower roots which means that the new forest uses less water than the previous forest that means that less water returns to the atmosphere.
What happens as a result of farming practices?
Deforestation for crops (reduces interception and evapotranspiration), soil erosion from machinery/cattle (reduces infiltration), irrigation, extraction of groundwater, soil drainage speeds up throughflow (dryer soils).
What percentage of India and the USA rely on aquifers?