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Flashcards in Changing Attitudes Towards the Oceans Deck (6)
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1

Changing attitudes towards whaling

- hunted to almost extinction during 20th century
- since 1946, industry regulated by IWC
- 1986 - indefinite ban issued, UNCLOS requires all states to follow IWC guidelines
- not entirely successful 'indigenous' traditional societies still pursue as part of culture
- Japan, lower levels but still do it, majority now see it as unacceptable
- countries more aware of environmental impacts over time, problems of overfishing and marine pollution long time until satisfactorily tackled

2

Population growth, rising affluence and National resources

- prosperity risen in BRIC and MINT
- almost 1 billion in Africa, Asia and Latin America achieved middle-class status in past 30 years, more pressure on ocean resources
- rising affluence and aspirations in China result in more people adopting diet rich in meat and fish, water insecurity on farmland, shark fin soup is cultural tradition in China

3

Marine Ecosystem over exploitation

- extensive hunting triggers system impacts, e.g. predator prey relationship
- balance of relationships in food chain may be restored if fishing ceases
- humpback whale populations unlikely to regain original size

4

Implications of fish stock collapse

- e.g. Newfoundland Grand Banks Cod Fishery, Canada, 40,000 people out of work in 1992
- system threshold crossed when output of system exceeded input of system, leading to collapse of fish stocks
- North Sea cod advised to avoid by Marine Conservation Society due to historically low levels, (also Atlantic salmon and med Tuna)
- indigenous communities greatly affected as relied on fish trade income

5

Sustainable management of marine environments

= 'meeting needs of present without compromising future generations needs'
- environmental sustainability includes renewable oceanic, terrestrial and atmospheric resources managed in ways of guaranteed continued use

6

Sustainable strategies applied at varying scales

- Global actions = FAO 'ensure long term conservation and sustainable use of marine resources', designates MPA (marine protected areas) supported by UNCLOS
- International & National = EU's CFP (common fisheries policy) designed to conserve fish stocks in European waters, catch limits regularly updated
- Local = Island of Aran lobbied Scottish government to designate surrounding waters as 'no-take' zones
- Business = agriculture grown rapidly since 1985, now brings new dangers to ecosystems. salmon escape from farms carrying disease and parasites common in cramped conditions
- Citizens = individuals do not support unsustainable fishing through shopping choices, Hugh-F-W 'fish fight' campaign encouraging shoppers to try less popular fish species to avoid exploitation