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Flashcards in Managing Ocean Pollution Deck (9)
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1

Plastic pollution problems

- problem accelerated due to increase in plastic production globally
- 2014, 311million tonnes produced worldwide
- essential for everyday life, toothbrush, asthma pumps
- cheap materials and EEs development fuelled 'throw away' attitudes (bin instead of fix)
- bottled water driven by lifestyle
- every mile2 contains 46,000 pieces of floating plastic
- scientists concerned with impacts on maritime ecosystems and food webs, lids from plastic bottles can mimc appearance of shrimp eaten by albatross

2

Surface gyres of ocean and effect on plastic pollution

- circular currents in oceans cycle plastic clockwise (n.Hem) and anticlockwise (s.Hem)
- high levels found on remote islands as a result
- rubber ducks found on Atlantic beaches after 1992 container ship incident in Pacific Ocean

3

Eutrophication and marine dead zones

- nitrate fertilisers runoff into rivers or coastal waters
- algal bloom = initial growth in marine life, followed by death of fish and crustaceans
- 20 major marine dead zones, particularly coast of Japan and Gulf of Mexico due to hub regions of global agri-business

4

Management of marine waste at varying scales

- global conventions (UNCLOS)
- EU and other rules on waste management
- citizen led and NGO actions

5

Global conventions and limitation in reducing plastic waste in oceans

- UNCLOS states bound by rules preventing waste dumping delibrately at sea
- recycling schemes in some countries
- land based discharges due to weather flashing litter into estuaries or river networks

6

National and European rules to reduce plastic waste in oceans

- government now using legislation to reduce throwaway plastics
- thin plastic bags in china prohibited
- 70% reduction after introduction of plastic bag charge in Wales 2011

7

Awareness and local action of plastic pollution in oceans

- citizens and NGOs joined global campaign
- adventure ecology campaign group built a boat fro 12,500 bottles and sailed it across the pacific ocean
- Greenpeace, ocean clean up of NGOs campaigned on issue also
- plastic bags film created in 2010
- numerous NGOs working on banning bottled water where tap water is available

8

Evaluation of success of plastic waste strategies

- government action in EU states at international and national levels, educating citizens on recycling facilities
- plastic waste set to quadruple by 2050 on account of globalising affluence in EEs
- most strategies target new flows rather than existing stocks
- developing new materials, including biodegradable or edible plastic

9

Global governance by UNESCO and protection of oceans

- since 1972, world health convention, UNESCO awarded special protection to places/regions that have 'outstanding universal value'
- outstanding = exceptional site, 'geography of superlative'
- universal = significance globally not just national importance
- value = UNESCO uses a criteria to define 'worth' such as species richness/uniqueness
- 2016 46 maritime sites of world heritage list
- Wadden sea, S. North Sea, 10million birds stop on their way from breeding areas in Siberia/Canada
- Columbia's Malpelo Fauna and Flora Sanctuary maintaining shark and fish health in Pacific Ocean
- Galapagos Islands marine reserve is a biodiversity hotspot