Flashcards in Chapter 1: Statistics and the Scientific Method Deck (20):

0

## What are the methods of knowing? (6)

### Tenacity, intuition, authority, rationalism, observation and scientific method.

1

## Tenacity?

### information accepted as true because its always been believed to be true or repeated often......persistent...very difficult to change!

2

## Intuition?

###
Ominous significance of random/chance events

information is accepted based on a gut feeling

cons: biases affect perceptions and can lead to crazy intuitions

unsupported by evidence

no critical eval by others !

3

## Authority?

###
acceptance of information from an authority.

cons: authorities can be wrong

expertise generalizes other areas

tend to be accepted without question...

4

## Rationalism

###
knowledge gained by applying pure reason and logic!

major + minor premise taken as true = correct conclusion

cons: incorrect premise leads to incorrect conclusion...

5

## Observation?Empiricism ?

###
learning through observation and experience..

The doctrine that all knowledge is derived from sense experience...

cons difficult to be objective....senses can be easily tricked..

humans are full of biases...

6

## Scientific Method??

###
all ideas are subjected to empirical test

combination of empiricism and rationalism...

objective observations

data based conclusions

tentative conclusions

asks answerable questions....that can be proven valid or wrong...

Observation-theory-prediction-experiment

7

## Population?

### complete set of individuals we are interested in studying....

8

## Sample?

### subset of individuals from the population! we draw conclusions on the population from this....

9

## Variables?

### any characteristic of individuals that can take on different values depending on the situation...

10

##
Independent Variable?

### manipulated by researcher

11

## Dependent Variable?

### measured to determine effect of the IV...

12

## Statistic

### # calculated on the sample data....

13

## Parameter?

### number calculated on the population data..

14

##
Observational Studies?3 types

1.Naturalistic

2.Parameter Estimation

3. Correlational Studies

###
no direct exp manipulation of variables by researcher...

1. just observe in natural environment

2. interested in a characteristic of the pop

3. determine if 2 or more variables are related....

15

## True experiments?

### researchers attempt to determine if changes in one variable produce changes in another ...actively manipulate variables...

16

## Constant?

###
something that is not susceptible to variation or change..

cannot be statistically analyzed ...

17

## Variable??

###
something susceptible to change or variation

2 or more values...

exp research either IV or DV

correlational research either predictor or criterion..

qualitative or quantitative ..

18

## Descriptive Statistics?

###
describes or characterize the data...

averages, percents variability ..

19