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Flashcards in CNS Neoplasms Deck (45)
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1

Primary Malignant Brain Tumors

Men > Women
More frequent in children

2

Risk Factors for Brain Tumors

Genetic mutation
Neurofibromatosis
Exposure to high dose ionizing radiation

3

High Dose Ionizing Radiation Possibilities

Radiation therapy
Atomic bomb survivors
CT scans
Dental xrays

4

Classification of CNS Neoplasm

Grade 1: benign
Grade 2: malignant
Grade 3: malignant tissue that has cells that are actively growing
Grade 4: malignant tissue has cells that look most abnormal and tend to grow quickly

5

Tumor Classifications

Neuroglial (Glioma)
Meningioma
Schwannoma

6

Neuroglial (Glioma) Subtypes

Astrocytoma
Oligodendroglioma
Ependymoma

7

Schwannoma Subtype

Acoustic neuroma

8

Astrocytic Tumor Subtypes

Glioblastomas
Astrocytomas

9

Astrocytic Tumor Grading

Grade 1: benign (almost always diagnosed in childhood)
Grade 2: slow growing and invade surrounding tissue
Grade 3: rare and require aggressive treatment due to tentacle like growth are hard to resect
Grade 4: aggressive fast growing cancer (Glioblastoma)

10

Glioblastoma

Highly malignant
60-75% of all astrocytomas
Difficult to remove
Survival 2 years
Treatment: surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy

11

Oligodendroglioma

Can be grade II-III
Frontal, temporal lobe
Slow growing

12

Main Presenting Symptom of Oligodendroglioma

Seizure

13

Frontal Lobe Oligodendroglioma

Weakness on one side of the body
Personality changes
Behavior changes
Difficulty with short term memory

14

Treatment of Oligodendroglioma

Surgery
Radiation
Chemotherapy

15

Prognosis of Oligodendroglioma

Survival 4-10 years

16

Ependymal Cells

Cells line the ventricles of the brain and center of the spinal cord

17

Ependymoma

More common in children
Peak at age 5-6 and 20-30

18

Intracranial Ependymoma

Most common in kids
Poor prognosis
Symptoms of increased ICP: hydrocephalus, headache, N/V, ataxia, strabismus, irritability, altered mental status

19

Spinal Cord Ependymoma

Most common in adults
Better prognosis
May cause cord compression symptoms
Most common spinal cord tumor

20

Meningioma

20-30% of primary brain tumors
Most common primary brain tumor

21

Meningioma Facts

More common in women
Benign
Usually grow inward putting pressure on brain and spinal cord
Can grow outward and cause thickening of the skull

22

Treatment of Meningioma

Surgery
Radiation

23

Meningioma Prognosis

5 year survival rate: 73-94%

24

Meningioma Symptoms

Irritation: seizures
Compression: HA, focal weakness, dysphagia, apathy, somnolence
Stereotypic: CN deficits, change in mentation, visual changes, anosmia, exopthalmos, tongue atrophy
Vascular: compression of cerebral arteries
Misc: hydrocephalus, panhypopituitarism

25

Tumors of the Cranial and Paraspinal Nerves

Schwannoma
Neurofibroma
Perineurioma
Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor

26

Schwannomas

Nerve sheath tumor
Relatively slow growing
Mostly benign
Acoustic neuromas are the most common

27

Acoustic Neuroma

Arises from 8th cranial nerve
Benign
Slow growing
Can cause serious complications

28

Acoustic Neuroma Symptoms

Unilateral hearing loss
Tinnitus
Occasional dizziness
Difficulty swallowing
Impaired eye movement
Taste disturbance
Unsteadiness

29

Treatment of Acoustic Neuroma

Surgical excision
Stereotactic radiation surgery
Followed by observation fro growth

30

Outcome and Prognosis Neuroma

Tinnitus- up to 60% relieved
Recurrence- less that 5% (observe for 10 years)
Hearing- preserved in 80%
Facial Nerve Dysfunction: variable