Compartment syndrome Flashcards Preview

Phase II: Periop Pt1 > Compartment syndrome > Flashcards

Flashcards in Compartment syndrome Deck (9):
1

Define compartment syndrome

Increased pressure within a muscle compartment ➔ decreased blood supply ➔ nerve damage

2

Name 3 causes of acute compartment syndrome

Fractures
Crush injury
Burns
Infection
Prolonged limb compression
Reperfusion injury

3

Describe the presentation of acute compartment syndrome

Usually occurs within 48hr of injury

Increased pain despite fracture immobilisation
Sensory deficit in distribution within compartment
Muscle tenderness and swelling
XS pain on passive movement
Tissue ischaemia (late)

4

Name 2 differential diagnoses for acute compartment syndrome

Peripheral oedema
Infection
DVT

5

What investigations are used for acute compartment syndrome?

Measuring intracompartmental pressure: wick catheter, needle manometry, side-ported needles etc.

6

Outline the management of acute compartment syndrome

Urgent decompression to prevent severe ischaemia
Continuous pressure monitoring
Open fasciotomy
Debridement of necrosis

7

Name 2 complications of acute compartment syndrome

Tissue necrosis within 12hr
Muscle necrosis ➔ ischaemic contracture

8

What is the prognosis of acute compartment syndrome?

Nerve dysfunction may be reversible
Infarcted muscle damage is permanent
Early intervention ➔ good functional outcome

9

What clinical sign is often seen with compartment syndrome of the lower limb?

Foot drop due to damage to the common fibular nerve