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Flashcards in Conservation Science Deck (17)
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1

Who proposed the classical model of island biogeography

MacArthur and Wilson 1963

2

What are the 2 patterns in island biogeography

- large island have more species than small islands
- near islands have more species than far islands

3

What processes cause these patterns

- extinction rate is higher on smaller islands
- the father the island the slower the immigration rate

4

What 3 types of islands are there

1. Oceanic islands eg. Seychelles
2. Landbridge islands eg. Britain
3. Habitat islands eg. Forest surrounded by farmland

5

What is a meta population

As set of local populations occupying various habitat patches and connected to one another by the movement of individuals among them

6

What are natural boundaries (edges)

Areas of ecosystems that are near boundaries between different ecosystems which can provide unique habitats
Eg.:
- coastal forests in SA
- gallery forest, San Pedro river valley

7

What can man made boundaries (edged)

Road-forest
Forest-plantation

8

What is the drivers and passengers effect on ecosystems

Removing drivers causes a cascade effect but loss of the passengers leads to little change in the rest of the ecosystem (rivet popping hypothesis)

9

What is the insurance hypothesis

Increasing biodiversity insures ecosystems against declines

10

What is the idiosyncratic hypothesis

Ecosystem function changes when diversity changes, but the magnitude and direction of changes are unpredictable

11

What is ecological resilience

The capacity of an ecosystem to absorb disturbance without shifting to an alternative state

12

What model is used to describe ecological resilience

The rolling ball

13

What is the tipping point of an ecological system

When the stress put on an ecosystem passes a critical point and it shifts from one system to another becomes inevitable

14

What is social-ecological resilience

The capacity to adapt or transform in the face of changing social-ecological systems

15

What is the extinction vortex

The tendency of small populations to decline toward extinction once caught in a downward spiral

16

What happens to genetic diversity in isolated small populations

Decreases

17

What does inbreeding depression in carnivores lead to

Shorter life span, disease spread, reduction in offspring fitness