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Flashcards in Introduction To Conservation Deck (21)
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What is conservation biology?

The application of biological science to address the problems of species, communities and ecosystems perturbed by humans


What is conservation science?

Is the protection of biodiversity and ecosystems for the benefit of humans as well as the environment


What proportion of the the worlds species may face extinction?



What are the normative postulates of conservation biology?

1. High diversity of organisms is good
2. Ecological complexity is good
3. Evolution is good


What is SLOSS

Single Large or Several Small
Which should we use to minimise loss of biodiversity in a human modified area



The smallest number of individuals required for an isolated population to persists at a predefined probability (95%) for a predefined time (100 years).


What is CITES, what does it mean

the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild fauna and flora
An international agreement between governments, to ensure trade of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival


What are the normative postulates of conservation science

1. Human well-being is integral to the conservation concept
2. Jointly maximise the benefits to people and biodiversity trough the application of social and natural sciences
3. It is still a crisis discipline but evidence based


What is ‘intrinsic’ and ‘instrumental’ value of nature

- intrinsic - nature should be protected for its own sake
- instrumental - we must save nature to help ourselves


What are the Sala’s classic biodiversity scenarios

That the dominant drivers of biodiversity loss differ between geographic regions


What is the anthropocene

The period of time marking humans profound influence on the global environment, including land surface and atmosphere, from 1610-1964


Example of a success story

The recovery of the southern white rhino.
Considered extinct in 1800, small population found in SA, now more than 20,000


What is happening with the golden lion tamarin

Was critically endangered 1996-2000, no only endangered, wild populations augmented with captive bred individuals


Give an example of a failed conservation effort

The northern white rhino
Critically endangered and possibly extinct in wild, were 30 between 1980-2003


What has happened to the Bornean orang utan

Lost 50% of population over last 60 years, through habitat loss and poaching


How has public priority of environment over business changed

1984 61%
Now 36%


How has energy use per capita changed since 1985

1985 - 1420kg of oil
Now - ~1800kg


What are conservation sciences new functional postulates

1. Pristine nature, untouched by human influences does not exist
2. The fate of nature and that of people and deeply intertwined
3. Nature can be surprisingly resilient
4. Humans can avoid the ‘tragedy of the commons’
5. Local conservation efforts are deeply connected to global forces


What is the purpose of the Nature Capital Project

Quantifying nature’s economic value


What does ESPA stand for

Ecosystem services for poverty alleviation


Give an example of real world conservation to help poverty

CHIESA, in Africa funded by the Finnish government