Diarhthrosis common features Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Diarhthrosis common features Deck (27):
1

what are the four consistent features of synovial (diarthrosis) jonts?

articular or fibrous capsule, synovial membrane, articular cartilage and synovial fluid

2

thickening of the fibrous capsule connective tissue will form the

capsular ligament

3

what generic accessory ligaments may accompany and support the capsular ligament?

intracapsular and extracapsular ligament

4

what is the generic function of ligaments?

stimulate reflex contraction of muscles around the joint

5

what are the characteristics of the type 1 articular receptors?

located in the superficial layer of the fibrous capsule, resemble ruffini endings, most numerous in cervical zygapophyses and they monitor the joints at rest

6

what are the characteristics of type ii articular receptors?

located in deeper strata of the fibrous capsule, resemble pacinian corpuscles, most numerous in the cervical spine and monitor the joint during normal range of motion

7

what are the characteristics of type 3 articular receptors?

present in collateral and intrinsic ligaments, resemble golgi tendon organs, not initially observed along the vertebral column and monitor extreme joint motion

8

what is the function of type 4 articular receptors?

nociceptive, they monitor pain

9

type 4b articular receptors would be present in what locations?

accessory ligaments in general, dense in the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine

10

What are the three modifications of articular synovial membrane?

1. synovial villi 2. Articular fat pads or haversian glands (3) synovial menisci and intra articular discs

11

what is the generic function of modificatoins of articular synovial membrane?

aid in spreading synovial fluid

12

what is the apparent function of synovial villi?

increase the surface of synovial membrane available for secretion- absorption phenomena

13

articular fat pads are most numerous in what location along the vertebral column?

Lumbar zygapophyses

14

what is the unique name of the inner or lumenal layer of the synovial membrane?

synovial lamina intima

15

what are the specific functions of type A synovial cells?

are phagocytic

16

What is the specific functions of type B synovial cells?

secrete proteinaceous substances and hyaluronic acid

17

What are examples of glycosaminoglycans important in articular cartilage?

hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfates and keratin sulfate

18

what is the primary function of bound glycosaminoglycans in articular cartilage?

form a network for water retention

19

what is implied when cartilage is said to have elastic properties?

cartilage can deform and returns to original volume rapidly, a time independent property

20

What is implied when cartilage is said to have viscoelastic properties?

cartilage can deform but returns to original volume slowly, a time dependent property

21

which theory of joint lubrication implies a loss of fluid from the cartilage into the joint space during compression results in increased viscosity of the synovial fluid?

weeping theory

22

which theory of joint lubrication implies water loss from the synovial fluid increases viscosity of the remaining synovial fluid?

boosted theory

23

which theory of joint lubrication implies an adsorption of lubricant onto cartilage surfaces is responsible for the low-friction observed during movement?

boundary theory

24

What are the properties of synovial fluid?

it is yellow white, viscous, slightly alkaline and tastes salty

25

which substance is synovial fluid was first thought to be responsible for its viscosity and lubricating behavior?

hyaluronate

26

What substance of synovial fluid has been proposed to be resposinble for its viscosity and lubricating behavior ?

lubricin

27

What is the function of synovial fluid?

provides a nutritive source for articular cartilage and supply the lubricant for the cartilage surface