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Flashcards in Diarhthrosis common features Deck (27):

what are the four consistent features of synovial (diarthrosis) jonts?

articular or fibrous capsule, synovial membrane, articular cartilage and synovial fluid


thickening of the fibrous capsule connective tissue will form the

capsular ligament


what generic accessory ligaments may accompany and support the capsular ligament?

intracapsular and extracapsular ligament


what is the generic function of ligaments?

stimulate reflex contraction of muscles around the joint


what are the characteristics of the type 1 articular receptors?

located in the superficial layer of the fibrous capsule, resemble ruffini endings, most numerous in cervical zygapophyses and they monitor the joints at rest


what are the characteristics of type ii articular receptors?

located in deeper strata of the fibrous capsule, resemble pacinian corpuscles, most numerous in the cervical spine and monitor the joint during normal range of motion


what are the characteristics of type 3 articular receptors?

present in collateral and intrinsic ligaments, resemble golgi tendon organs, not initially observed along the vertebral column and monitor extreme joint motion


what is the function of type 4 articular receptors?

nociceptive, they monitor pain


type 4b articular receptors would be present in what locations?

accessory ligaments in general, dense in the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine


What are the three modifications of articular synovial membrane?

1. synovial villi 2. Articular fat pads or haversian glands (3) synovial menisci and intra articular discs


what is the generic function of modificatoins of articular synovial membrane?

aid in spreading synovial fluid


what is the apparent function of synovial villi?

increase the surface of synovial membrane available for secretion- absorption phenomena


articular fat pads are most numerous in what location along the vertebral column?

Lumbar zygapophyses


what is the unique name of the inner or lumenal layer of the synovial membrane?

synovial lamina intima


what are the specific functions of type A synovial cells?

are phagocytic


What is the specific functions of type B synovial cells?

secrete proteinaceous substances and hyaluronic acid


What are examples of glycosaminoglycans important in articular cartilage?

hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfates and keratin sulfate


what is the primary function of bound glycosaminoglycans in articular cartilage?

form a network for water retention


what is implied when cartilage is said to have elastic properties?

cartilage can deform and returns to original volume rapidly, a time independent property


What is implied when cartilage is said to have viscoelastic properties?

cartilage can deform but returns to original volume slowly, a time dependent property


which theory of joint lubrication implies a loss of fluid from the cartilage into the joint space during compression results in increased viscosity of the synovial fluid?

weeping theory


which theory of joint lubrication implies water loss from the synovial fluid increases viscosity of the remaining synovial fluid?

boosted theory


which theory of joint lubrication implies an adsorption of lubricant onto cartilage surfaces is responsible for the low-friction observed during movement?

boundary theory


What are the properties of synovial fluid?

it is yellow white, viscous, slightly alkaline and tastes salty


which substance is synovial fluid was first thought to be responsible for its viscosity and lubricating behavior?



What substance of synovial fluid has been proposed to be resposinble for its viscosity and lubricating behavior ?



What is the function of synovial fluid?

provides a nutritive source for articular cartilage and supply the lubricant for the cartilage surface