DRUGS FOR GI DISEASE Flashcards Preview

GASTRO-INTESTINAL MEDICINE AND HEPATOLOGY > DRUGS FOR GI DISEASE > Flashcards

Flashcards in DRUGS FOR GI DISEASE Deck (22)
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What is the most common cause of constipation?

Low dietary fibre

1

What are the local GI tract causes of constipation?

Low dietary fibre
Diverticular disease
Malignancy
Irritable bowel disease
Anorectal conditions

2

What are the more systemic causes of constipation?

Hypothyroidism
Hypercalcaemia
Hypokalaemia
Drugs
Dehydration
Depression
Pregnancy
Neurological - Parkinsonism, autonomic neuropathy (diabetes)

3

What is diverticular disease of the colon?

High pressures in the colon cause

4

Which drugs can cause constipation?

Opiates
Calcium channel blockers (verapamil)
Anticholinergics (benzhexol)
Iron supplements
Lithium

5

How do you manage someone with constipation?

Treat underlying cause
More exercise
Drink more water
More fibre
Some drugs

6

How much fibre do you need a day?

18 grams

7

What contains a lot of fibre?

Figs, all bran

8

What are the four classes of pharmacological treatment option for constipation?

Bulk forming laxatives (e.g. bran, ispaghula husk)
Osmotic laxatives (e.g. magnesium salts, lactulose)
Stimulants (e.g. senna) - most useful with opiates
Stool softeners (e.g. arachis oil)

9

How long does senna take to work?

6-8 hours

10

How long do osmotic laxatives take to work?

1-3 hours

11

How long do bulk forming laxatives take to work?

1-3 days

12

What are the local GI tract causes of diarrhoea?

Gastroenteritis
Inflammatory bowel disease
Diverticular disease
Irritable bowel disease
Malignancy
Malabsorption

13

What are the systemic causes of diarrhoea?

Hyperthyroidism
Drugs
Anxiety
Autonomic neuropathy

14

If there is pain in the abdomen, is the diagnosis more likely to be a local or systemic cause?

Local

15

What are the microorganisms most likely to cause diarrhoea?

Rotavirus, noroviurs adenovirus, HIV, HSV,

E. coli
Salmonella
Campylobacter
Shigella
C diff
S aureus

Amoebic dysentery
Giardia
Cryptosporidium

16

Fluid replacement?

Oral rehydration therapy (isosomotic electrolyte solutions e.g dioralyte)
Composition of oral rehydration solutions (Na 60 mmol, K 20 mmol, Cl 60 mmol, glucose 90 mmol)
IV fluids

17

OSCE station

Know your fluids, mechanisms

18

What are the anti infective treatment options?

Look up the slide

19

What drugs can cause diarrhoea?

Laxatives
Antibiotics
SSRI antidepressants
Orlistat (cause fat malabsorption; used in obesity)

20

What is steotorrhea?

Diarrhoea containing fat

21

What are the usual symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome?

Abdo pain
Bloating
Change in bowel habit