STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE GUT Flashcards Preview

GASTRO-INTESTINAL MEDICINE AND HEPATOLOGY > STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE GUT > Flashcards

Flashcards in STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE GUT Deck (115)
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1

What is the cell type that lines the entire mouth?

Stratified squamous epithelial cells

2

How many teeth do adults normally have?

32

3

How many teeth do children normally have?

20 deciduous teeth

4

Where do the teeth arise from?

Alveolar bone

5

Where on the tongue are the receptors for sweet foods found?

Towards the front

6

Where on the tongue are the receptors for salty foods found?

Anterior middle portion

7

Where on the tongue are the receptors for sour foods found?

Posterior middle portion

8

Where on the tongue are the receptors for bitter food found?

Towards the back

9

What attached the anterior part of the tongue to the floor of the mouth?

The Frenulum

10

What are the roles of saliva?

Lubricate food to aid swallowing
Begin digestion of starches (amylase)
Break down of fats to help tongue analyse fragments (Lipases)
Antibacterial enzymes

11

How much saliva an adult produce per day?

1500 ml, most is swallowed and recycled

12

What is the enzyme found in the saliva which starts the breakdown of starch?

Alpha amylase

13

What are the names of the three main salivary glands found in the mouth?

Parotid gland
Submandibular gland
Sublingual gland

14

Which salivary gland in the mouth produces the highest percentage of saliva?

The submandibular gland - 70%

15

What is the specific role of the parotid gland?

Produces watery secretions lacking mucus
Secretes the alpha amylase

16

What is the specific role of the submandibular gland?

Secretes mucolipoproteins

17

Is saliva isotonic, hypertonic or hypotonic?

Hypotonic

18

What is the oesophageal hiatus?

The point where the oesophagues passes through the diaphragm and hence enters the abdomen

19

What proportion of the oesophagus is made of striated muscle?

The upper third

20

What proportion of the oesophagus is made of smooth muscle?

Lower two thirds

21

At what spinal level does the oesophageal hiatus sit?

T10

22

What is the name of the oesophageal sphincter that closes off the entrance to the stomach?

Cardio sphincter or lower oesophageal sphincter

23

Which nerve controls the sphincters of the oesophagus?

Vagus nerve

24

Describe the nervous pathway of swallowing.

Sensory endings in the mouth signal presence of food
Sends signal to nucleus of the tractus solitarius (solitary tract, NTS)
Activates motor neurones in nucleus ambiguus
Controls muscles of soft palate, larynx and epiglottis

25

What is the capacity of the average adult stomach?

4 Litres

26

What do we call the superior part of the stomach where the bolus enters?

The fundus

27

What is the name of the folds in the stomach that allow it to expand?

Rugae

28

What are the functions of the stomach?

Temporary storage of food
Mechanical breakdown of food
Pepsin digestion of proteins
Controlled passage of chyme into small intestine
Secretion of intrinsic factor

29

What is chyme?

The name used for the semi-digested material which is passed on from the stomach to the small intestine.

30

What is the role of intrinsic factor?

It protects vitamin B12 from the very low pH of the stomach. It is absorbed with the vitamin in the ileum.