Flashcards in STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE GUT Deck (115)
What is the cell type that lines the entire mouth?
Stratified squamous epithelial cells
How many teeth do adults normally have?
How many teeth do children normally have?
20 deciduous teeth
Where do the teeth arise from?
Where on the tongue are the receptors for sweet foods found?
Towards the front
Where on the tongue are the receptors for salty foods found?
Anterior middle portion
Where on the tongue are the receptors for sour foods found?
Posterior middle portion
Where on the tongue are the receptors for bitter food found?
Towards the back
What attached the anterior part of the tongue to the floor of the mouth?
What are the roles of saliva?
Lubricate food to aid swallowing
Begin digestion of starches (amylase)
Break down of fats to help tongue analyse fragments (Lipases)
How much saliva an adult produce per day?
1500 ml, most is swallowed and recycled
What is the enzyme found in the saliva which starts the breakdown of starch?
What are the names of the three main salivary glands found in the mouth?
Which salivary gland in the mouth produces the highest percentage of saliva?
The submandibular gland - 70%
What is the specific role of the parotid gland?
Produces watery secretions lacking mucus
Secretes the alpha amylase
What is the specific role of the submandibular gland?
Is saliva isotonic, hypertonic or hypotonic?
What is the oesophageal hiatus?
The point where the oesophagues passes through the diaphragm and hence enters the abdomen
What proportion of the oesophagus is made of striated muscle?
The upper third
What proportion of the oesophagus is made of smooth muscle?
Lower two thirds
At what spinal level does the oesophageal hiatus sit?
What is the name of the oesophageal sphincter that closes off the entrance to the stomach?
Cardio sphincter or lower oesophageal sphincter
Which nerve controls the sphincters of the oesophagus?
Describe the nervous pathway of swallowing.
Sensory endings in the mouth signal presence of food
Sends signal to nucleus of the tractus solitarius (solitary tract, NTS)
Activates motor neurones in nucleus ambiguus
Controls muscles of soft palate, larynx and epiglottis
What is the capacity of the average adult stomach?
What do we call the superior part of the stomach where the bolus enters?
What is the name of the folds in the stomach that allow it to expand?
What are the functions of the stomach?
Temporary storage of food
Mechanical breakdown of food
Pepsin digestion of proteins
Controlled passage of chyme into small intestine
Secretion of intrinsic factor
What is chyme?
The name used for the semi-digested material which is passed on from the stomach to the small intestine.