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Flashcards in Egypt Deck (75):
1

What did lord Palmerston say regarding British policy towards Egypt in 1860

'We do not want to have Egypt. What we wish about Egypt is that it should be attached to the Turkish empire, which is security against it belonging to another European Power. We wish to trade with Egypt and travel through Egypt.'

2

Who order the occupation of Egypt

Gladstone
PM

3

Why was it surprising when Gladstone ordered the occupation of Eg

He was committed to a policy of 'non-intervention' in colonial affairs
Additionally, in 1880 there were no plans to extend the British Enpire in Africa

4

So why did Gladstone order the occupation of Egypt

Ottoman Empire who had captured Egypt In 1517 was in decline which worried British government as the ottomans possessions in North Africa wld fall into the hands of rival European powers who threatened British interests in the area

5

WHAT year did Gladstone order the occupation of Egypt

1882

6

WHAT turned out to be the starting point of the partition of Africa

THE ordering of the occupation of Egypt in 1882

7

Before the partition of Africa what was Britains involvement there like

Small scale
No colonies in the north or east
Minimal in west where some coastal areas like Gambia and sierras Leone, Lagos were established
Most in the south where cape colony and Natal were formal colonies & Britain had RIGHT to control foreign relations of the two 'Boer ' republics - the orange free state and the Transvaal

8

WHAT did the french think at the decline of the Ottoman Empire and Egypt

They encouraged Egypt to break away from the Ottoman Empire and French investors poured money into the country after 1850

9

WHAT is the most dramatic example of French investment in Egypt

was a bold plan to construct the Suez Canal in 1869

10

WHAT year did the Suez Canal open

1869

11

Who was suez built by and supervised by

Built by tens of thousands of Egyptians under the supervision of French engineers

12

Who designed the Suez Canal

Frenchman
Ferdinand de Lesseps

13

Following completion of Suez Canal what did Britain do

Large influx of British investment
Brit banks offered the Egyptian government enormous loans which were used for economic development

14

Suez Canal impact on Alexandria

Became a major port
1,000 miles of railway tracks laid
Arms bought
Schools and roads built

15

WHAT happens to egypts foreign debt following construction of Suez Canal

Between 1863 and 1879 Egypts foreign debt increased from £3 million to £100 million
AND the interest rate to be paid on it in this same period rose from 7% to 20%

16

WHAT happened in Egypt 1875

A debt crisis which seemed likely to lead to the country's economic collapse

17

WHAT did the Egyptian ruler Ismail do upon the debt crisis of 1875

Although he still owed allegiance to the sultan of Turkey, in desperation he requested the British and French governments to provide expert economic advice

18

Who'd the British send after Egyptian ruler requested advice following the debt crisis of 1875

Stephen cave
A British treasury official

19

In 1878 an Anglo-French rescue plan emerged based on

THE ideas put forward in the cave report

20

When did 'dual economic control' between Britain and France begin and end

1878-1882

21

WHAT did the Anglo-French plan do

Restored financial stability
BUT
brought misery 2 vast majority of Egyptians: led to starvation in upper Egypt, increased unemployment, street rioting AND A REBELLION IN THE ARMY

22

bad consequence of French English involvement with their dual economic control

Starvation in upper Egypt
Unemployment
Rioting
Army rebellion

23

Who was on the verge of taking power in Egypt in 1882

An Egyptian nationalist movement under the leadership of Arabi Pasha, a colonel in the Egyptian army

24

WHAT did the nationalists under Arabi Pashi want

They wanted an end to the Turkish dominance in government and the Anglo-French control of the economy

25

WHAT happened on the 11th June 1882 Egypt Alexandria

50 Europeans killed

26

WHAT happened following the murder of 50 Europeans in Alexandria during nationalist rioting 11 June 1882

British government order formal occupation of Egypt

27

WHAT did Britain do following ordering formal occupation

THE Royal Navy bombarded, British army invaded
BY OCTOBER 1882 the REBELLION HAD VEEN CRUShed

28

WERE french happy

Fuck no

29

British decision to rule the country was made

ON its own NO FRENCH INPUT

30

WHAT did the French suspect t

THE British merely used the nationalist uprising to cloak its real desire to dominate Egypt and to freeze out France

31

Who was the first consul-general

Evelyn Baring

32

WHAT was the economy initially controlled by?

Caisse de la Dette

33

WHAT countries did Caisse de la Dette consist of

Britain
France
Germany
Austro-Hungary
Italy
Russia

34

Under caisse de la dette what did half of Egypts revenue go towards

Paying European bond holders

35

How did caisse de la dette prevent Britain from being totally in control

Members of the CDLD cld prevent British consul-general from spending egypt's money on matters they disapproved of

36

When did caisse de la dette end

After entente cordiale of 1904

37

WHAT was the entente cordiale of 1904

French agreed to respect Britain in Egypt in return for British recognition of their take over of morocco

38

WHAT did baring do to revitalise economy

Cuts to Egyptian military and bureaucracy
Improved communications and irrigation

39

Within 10 years of baring as consul- general since 1883 what trebled

Exports of cotton and sugar had trebles

40

What did the population rise from under Baring

7 million to 10 million

41

Tourism in Egypt

It expanded there and Thomas Cook and Son became Eqypts largest employer providing many jobs

42

Was Egypt a protectorate or colony

Neither it was a hybrid
Didn't become formal protectorate until 1914

43

All Egyptian government minister had WHAT ?

A British adviser

44

What happened if an Egyptian government minister didn't listen to the advise of their British adviser

They were dismissed

45

How many British ppl placed in Egyptian army

6,000

46

Which classes like British rule in Egypt

Upper classes benefited
Middle and lower didn't, hence a growing middle class nationalist movement

47

What did Egypt like about British

They did little for the poor and didn't deal with corruption of Khedive

48

Who did Baring improve life for

Baring improved conditions for Egyptian labourers and introduced better sanitation and health services in towns

49

What was a great thing introduced into Nile

ASWAN DAM

50

Why was the Aswan Dam good

Irritated half a million acres of former desert and allowed for year round irrigation

51

When was Aswan DAM opened

1902

52

Aswan DAM built under direction of whom

Sir john aird

53

How much did Aswan DAM cost

£2 mill

Cost 2 mill built in 190 TWO

54

Why didn't Egyptians like the new legislative assembly of 1913

It represented rich land owners rather than the ordinary people of Egypt

55

What was said about British attitudes to Egyptian cloth making industry

British didn't promote it although it would have provided jobs for the unemployed, because brits only interested in production of raw cotton to keep the spinners of Lancashire employed

Production of raw cotton trebled tho after British rule ( so did sugar)

56

What did Baring purposefully not do

Extend educational opportunity - as in India this led to greater demands and nationalism

57

When did Baring cave and give in to education

In 1909 a new university was found to supplement the university of Cairo where only religious education was on offer

58

What type of education did Egyptians usually have

A few years of elementary schooling and that was it

59

When did the national party return

1893

60

What did the Egyptian National party seek

Some guy the end of British occupation and their own representative government t

61

What did Cromer do when dealing with growing nationalism

Ignored demands BUT did appoint a nationalist, Saad Zaghloul Pasha as minister for education

62

Who did Cromer appoint as minister for education

Sad Zaghloul Pasha
A nationalist

63

When was the Denshawai Incident

June 1906

64

What happened at Denshawai incident

Big misunderstanding
Locals angry at British officers for shooting pigeons for sport which they'd bred for food but a native woman shot and officers ran away, one died due to heatstroke but soldiers arrived and assumed he'd been murdered and soldier killed an assumed assassin

65

What happened as a result of the Denshawai Incident of June 1906

52 villagers arrested
4 convicted of murder sentenced to death
1 life sentence of penal servitude
26 sentenced to terms of hard labour and flogging
Egyptian policeman who testified in defends of locals sentenced to 2 years impriosnment and 50 lashes

66

What happened to Egyptian police officer who testified in defender of villagers

Sentenced to two years of impriosnment and 50 lashes

67

What did sir Gorst do

Tried to impose tighter censorship of press in 1909
Placed more Egyptians in responsible government positions to weaken Egyptian National Party

68

What did Cromer admit to in 1902

He'd boasted that the Fellahin were grateful 2 British but admitted to committee of Imperial defence in 1902 that if Russia or France invaded it is unlikely loyalty could be expected from Egyptians in protecting the British there

69

Why did Britain remain in Egypt

Free passage through the Suez Canal ( in 1881: 2,256 out of 2,727 vessels that passed thru it were British)
If Brit did nothing other countries wld step in especially due to growth of Anglo-French colonies jealousies after 1885 and in light of the Franco-Russian alliance of 1882 and the french imperial dream of the Mediterranean becoming 'le lac français'
Additionally, in late 1880s turkey could no longer be relied on to stop Russian navy from passing through the Bosphorus

70

What events of rivals made Britain tighten their grip on Egypt and stay

THE growth of Anglo-French colonial jealousies after 1885 and the Franco-Russian alliance of 1892 with its prospect of the Mediterranean becoming 'le lac français'
Also turkey from late 1880s cld not be relied upon to stop the Russian navy passing thru Bosphorus

71

Evidence of Egyptians not benefitting from British

Little Egyptian satin government - Egyptian government ministers dismissed if they didn't follow advice of their British advisor
THE Denshawai Incident and how they were punished
Labour diverted to England eg cotton only raw no cloth making
Nationalism
In January 1900 Egyptian offices d coursed Sudanese asaltos to mutiny in hope it might expel British from Egypt

72

What did the Egyptian officers stationed at Khartoum want
January 1900

Heartened by the news of British defeats in South Africa and rumours of a Russian advance on India, encouraged their Sudanese askaris to mutiny in the hope that the rebellion might lead to the expulsion of the British from Egypt

73

How was what Cromer admitted to proven about Egypt not feeling loyalty to British

I'm 1914 Turko-German high command believed that an attack on Egypt would trigger an anti British rebellion

74

How did the educated class feel about the British

They found themselves largely excluded from the highest ranks of civil service, judiciary and army

75

THE extent of nationalist agitation is demonstrated by

THE fact hat there was a highly competent and energetic police intelligence service run by British, yet nationalism prevailed