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ESA 1 - Metabolism > Energy Production > Flashcards

Flashcards in Energy Production Deck (61)
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1

What is cell metabolised defined as? 

The highly integrated network of chemical reactions that occur within cells

2

What does the network of chemical reactions involved in cell metabolism consist of? 

A number of distinct chemical pathways (metabolic pathways) which link together 

3

Do the metabolic pathways occur in all cells? 

Some do, whilst others are confined to cells with specific functions 

4

What is produced from cell metabolism of nutrients? 

  • Energy for cell function and synthesis of cell components
  • Building block molecules
  • Organic precursor molecules
  • Biosynthetic reducing power

 

5

In what form is energy produced by cell metabolism?

ATP 

6

What are the building block molecules produced by cell metabolism used for? 

Synthesis of cell components needed for growth, maintenance, repair and division of the cell 

7

What are the organic precursor molecules produced by cell metabolism used for? 

To allow the inter-conversion of building block molecules

8

Give an example of an organic precursor molecule produced by cell metabolism

Acetyl-CoA

9

What is the biosynthetic reducing power produced by cell metabolism used in? 

The synthesis of cell components 

10

What molecule holds biosynthetic reducing power? 

NADPH

11

What sources provide cells nutrients? 

  • Diet
  • Synthesis in the body tissue 
  • Release from storage

 

12

What can happen to cell nutrients after being metabolised? 

  • Degradation to release energy
  • Synthesis of cell components
  • Storage

 

13

In what tissues can nutrients be degraded to release energy?

All

14

 In what tissues can nutrients be used to synthesise cell components? 

All tissues except RBCs

15

In what tissues can nutrients be metabolised to storage? 

  • Liver
  • Adipose tissue
  • Skeletal muscle 

 

16

What is catabolism? 

The breakdown of larger molecules into smaller ones 

17

What is anabolism? 

Where smaller molecules are built up into larger ones 

 

18

How are catabolism and anabolism involved in cell metabolism? 

Cell metabolism consists of pathways in which the overall reaction is catabolism linked to anabolism 

19

Are catabolism pathways oxidative or reductive? 

Oxidative 

20

What is meant by catabolic pathways being oxidative? 

They release H+ ions (reducing power) 

21

What do catabolic pathways release? 

  • Large amounts of free energy 
  • Intermediary metabolites 

 

22

Are anabolic pathways oxidative or reductive? 

Reductive

23

What is meant by anabolic pathways being reductive? 

They use H+ ions

24

What do anabolic pathways do? 

Use the intermediary metabolites and energy (ATP) produced by catabolism to drive the synthesis of important cell components 

25

What happens if energy intake from food is insufficient for cells function? 

The body utilises energy stores to keep the supply of energy continuous

26

What does metabolism couple? 

The energy released from exergonic reactions to the energy required by endergonic reactions

27

What is required in the coupling of exergonic reactions and endergonic reactions in metabolism? 

An intermediate process - the ADP/ATP cycle 

28

What is an exergonic reaction? 

One that is energy releasing 

29

Is the Gibbs Free Energy positive or negative in exergonic reactions? 

Negative 

30

Give three examples of phosphorylated compounds

  • Phosphonenolpyruvate
  • Creatine phosphate
  • ATP