What is catabolism?
The breaking down of molecules to release energy and reducing power
What is anabolism?
The use of energy, reducing power, and raw materials to make molecules for growth and maintenance
Assuming moderate physical activitity, what is the daily energy expenditure of a 70kg adult male?
Assuming moderate physical activitity, what is the daily energy expenditure of a 58kg adult female?
What are the components of daily energy expenditure?
- Basal metabolic rate
- Energy required for voluntary physical exercise
- Diet-induced thermogenesis
Define basal metabolic rate?
Energy used to support our basal metabolism
What is diet-induced thermogenesis?
Energy we require to process the food we eat
What are the essential components of the diet?
- Minerals and vitamins
Are fats essential as an energy source?
How does the energy yield from fats differ from carbohdyrates and proteins?
The energy yield of fats is 2.2 times greater
What are fats necessary for the absorption of?
What are the fat-soluble vitamins?
A, D, E, and K
Give two essential fatty acids
- Linoleic acid
- Linolenic acid
What is the importance of essential fatty acids?
They are structural components of cells membranes, and precusors of eicosanoids
What are eicosanoids?
Important regulatory molecules
What are amino acids the product of?
Digestion of proteins
What are amino acids used in?
The synthesis of essential N-containing compounds
Give 3 N-containing compounds
How much protein is degraded a day?
How is protein excreted in urine?
What is nitrogen balance?
When N2 intake = N2 loss
What is the average daily protein requirement of an adult male to maintain nitrogen balance?
What is meant by an essential amino acid?
One that cannot be synthesised in the body, and so must come from dietary protein
What is the importance of carbohydrates?
They are the major energy-containing component of the diet
How much energy is provided by carbohydrates?
What % of an adults body weight is water?
What % of a childs body weight is water?
What % of an elderly/obese peoples body weight is water?
What is the average water loss per day?
How is water loss from the body?
- Expired air