Nutrition, Diet, and Body Weight Flashcards Preview

ESA 1 - Metabolism > Nutrition, Diet, and Body Weight > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nutrition, Diet, and Body Weight Deck (63)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is catabolism? 

The breaking down of molecules to release energy and reducing power 

2

What is anabolism? 

The use of energy, reducing power, and raw materials to make molecules for growth and maintenance 

3

Assuming moderate physical activitity, what is the daily energy expenditure of a 70kg adult male? 

12,000kJ

4

Assuming moderate physical activitity, what is the daily energy expenditure of a 58kg adult female? 

9,500kJ 

5

What are the components of daily energy expenditure? 

  • Basal metabolic rate
  • Energy required for voluntary physical exercise
  • Diet-induced thermogenesis

 

  •  

6

Define basal metabolic rate? 

Energy used to support our basal metabolism

7

What is diet-induced thermogenesis? 

Energy we require to process the food we eat 

8

What are the essential components of the diet? 

  • Fats
  • Proteins
  • Carbohydrates
  • Water
  • Fibre
  • Minerals and vitamins

 

 

9

Are fats essential as an energy source? 

No 

10

How does the energy yield from fats differ from carbohdyrates and proteins? 

The energy yield of fats is 2.2 times greater 

11

What are fats necessary for the absorption of? 

Fat-soluble vitamins

12

What are the fat-soluble vitamins? 

A, D, E, and K 

13

Give two essential fatty acids

  • Linoleic acid
  • Linolenic acid

 

14

What is the importance of essential fatty acids? 

They are structural components of cells membranes, and precusors of eicosanoids

15

What are eicosanoids? 

Important regulatory molecules 

16

What are amino acids the product of? 

Digestion of proteins 

17

What are amino acids used in? 

The synthesis of essential N-containing compounds 

18

Give 3 N-containing compounds

  • Creatine
  • Nucleotides
  • Haem

 

19

How much protein is degraded a day?

About 35g 

20

How is protein excreted in urine? 

As urea

21

What is nitrogen balance? 

When N2  intake = Nloss

22

What is the average daily protein requirement of an adult male to maintain nitrogen balance? 

35g 

23

What is meant by an essential amino acid? 

One that cannot be synthesised in the body, and so must come from dietary protein 

24

What is the importance of carbohydrates? 

They are the major energy-containing component of the diet 

25

How much energy is provided by carbohydrates? 

17kJ/g

26

What % of an adults body weight is water? 

50-60%

27

What % of a childs body weight is water? 

70%

28

What % of an elderly/obese peoples body weight is water? 

50%

29

What is the average water loss per day? 

2.5litres

30

How is water loss from the body? 

  • Urine
  • Expired air
  • Skin
  • Faeces