Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (152)
What is an organism?
it is a living entity
What is ecology?
The study of interaction between organisms and their environment and determines the abundance and distribution of organisms
What are observational uses?
descriptive science of patterns that they saw and had questions to create the hypothesis then experiments
What are experiments?
They explain why it causes patterns by helping to identify the causation
What are quantitative measurements?
statistical analysis are bigger than experimental data and larger than observational data sets refining ability of things that experiments can't get
What is mathematical theory?
they model what might happen from experiments they do things before an experiment or what an experiment is unable to
What is competition?
competition is negative for both individuals
What is predation?
predation is positive for one individual and negative for the other being predated
What is mutualism?
Is positive for both individuals
What is parasitism?
is positive for one individual and negative for another
What is comensalism?
is positive for one and does not affect the other
What is neutralism?
it doesn't not overly effect other
What is amensalism?
negative to one and doesn't affect the other
What is evolution?
it is the change in gene frequency within a population or a group of individuals in one species over time. a process
What is a gene?
it is a heritable piece of DNA that codes for a specific trati with a combination of alleles producing varying trasits among populations
What are the mechanisms of evolution?
natural selection, mutations, genetic drift
What is natural selection?
a mechanism of evolution that is a differential survival and reproduction of individuals within a population due to environmental influences selectively acting on heritable variation in traits ex. individuals with certain traits survive and have more offspring not a process
What are mutations?
the change in gene frequencies with new gene and new allele populations possible.
What is gene flow?
flow or movement of genes into populations
What is genetic drift?
random loss of genes, especially in small populations
What is genotype?
allele combinations of genes that differs between individuals (leading to variation) and that in combination with the environment leads to the phenotype genetic material that leads to a trait
What is phenotype?
the external expression of a trait, product of genotype and environment
What is plasticity?
allows the expression of different phenotypes from 1 genotype if in different environments trigger different developmental pathway based upon environmental conditions
ex. butter cup leaves hot dry areas large and spindly, wet low to ground; narrow leaves
What is heritability?
the proportion of phenotypic variation that is due to genotypic variation.
What is fitness?
the relative contribution that an individual makes to the gene pool of future generations with higher fitnesses for individuals who survive and reproduce.
number of offspring or genes contributed by an individual to future generations sustaining same over time
What is relativity?
compare between individuals within a species due to the limit of resources used by a particular species
What is the process of adaptation?
it increases the suitability or fitness of a species for its environment due to natural selection ex. process of adaptation leading to trait based on beak size to eat seeds
What is the product of adaptation?
favorable trait that allows allowed more favorable survival due to natural election ex. opposable thumbs, beak sizes
What is adaptive evolution?
leads to a better fit to the environment as it is evolution due to natural selection, not necessarily turning into a trait