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What is an organism?

it is a living entity


What is ecology?

The study of interaction between organisms and their environment and determines the abundance and distribution of organisms


What are observational uses?

descriptive science of patterns that they saw and had questions to create the hypothesis then experiments


What are experiments?

They explain why it causes patterns by helping to identify the causation


What are quantitative measurements?

statistical analysis are bigger than experimental data and larger than observational data sets refining ability of things that experiments can't get


What is mathematical theory?

they model what might happen from experiments they do things before an experiment or what an experiment is unable to


What is competition?

competition is negative for both individuals


What is predation?

predation is positive for one individual and negative for the other being predated


What is mutualism?

Is positive for both individuals


What is parasitism?

is positive for one individual and negative for another


What is comensalism?

is positive for one and does not affect the other


What is neutralism?

it doesn't not overly effect other


What is amensalism?

negative to one and doesn't affect the other


What is evolution?

it is the change in gene frequency within a population or a group of individuals in one species over time. a process


What is a gene?

it is a heritable piece of DNA that codes for a specific trati with a combination of alleles producing varying trasits among populations


What are the mechanisms of evolution?

natural selection, mutations, genetic drift


What is natural selection?

a mechanism of evolution that is a differential survival and reproduction of individuals within a population due to environmental influences selectively acting on heritable variation in traits ex. individuals with certain traits survive and have more offspring not a process


What are mutations?

the change in gene frequencies with new gene and new allele populations possible.


What is gene flow?

flow or movement of genes into populations


What is genetic drift?

random loss of genes, especially in small populations


What is genotype?

allele combinations of genes that differs between individuals (leading to variation) and that in combination with the environment leads to the phenotype genetic material that leads to a trait


What is phenotype?

the external expression of a trait, product of genotype and environment


What is plasticity?

allows the expression of different phenotypes from 1 genotype if in different environments trigger different developmental pathway based upon environmental conditions

ex. butter cup leaves hot dry areas large and spindly, wet low to ground; narrow leaves


What is heritability?

the proportion of phenotypic variation that is due to genotypic variation.


What is fitness?

the relative contribution that an individual makes to the gene pool of future generations with higher fitnesses for individuals who survive and reproduce.

number of offspring or genes contributed by an individual to future generations sustaining same over time


What is relativity?

compare between individuals within a species due to the limit of resources used by a particular species


What is the process of adaptation?

it increases the suitability or fitness of a species for its environment due to natural selection ex. process of adaptation leading to trait based on beak size to eat seeds


What is the product of adaptation?

favorable trait that allows allowed more favorable survival due to natural election ex. opposable thumbs, beak sizes


What is adaptive evolution?

leads to a better fit to the environment as it is evolution due to natural selection, not necessarily turning into a trait


What are the limits to perfect adaptation?

1. gene flow brings in genes not adapted to surviving salty environments and it limits the ability to have perfect adaptation and don't have pressure of other environments such as ecotypes
2. mutation- have different ability than other individually usually lowers fitness limiting adaptation
3. trade-offs- attracting mate and trying to survive increasing the fitness in one acid decreasing the fitness in another one
4. design constraints- physics limit the possibilities ex. bird eat seeds and index easy to break down can't eat leaves, or cows need lots of stomach to break down
5. genetic drift- only limiting adaptation in small populations not larger population and is usually just neutral alleles. each one loses carrying something slightly unique in small populations lose a whole portion of some aspect of the species, not just because of higher fitness none of them saw just closest and nothing to do with its fitness, decreases variation can be random to most fit individual reducing the fitness of the population
6. changing environments- different environments each year, organism staying fit in one year not in next changing under population.