Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (60)
What is the random distribution of animals on a small-scale?
an individual has an equal probability of occurring anywhere in an area. with neutral interactions between individuals and between the individuals and local environment, they are closer and farther clumped and not clumped
What is the regular/uniform distribution of animals on a small-scale?
individuals are uniformly spaced throughout. there are usually antagonistic interactions between individuals or local depletion of resources groups farther away from each other. repel predators
the mean is greater than variation
What is the clumped distribution of animals on a small-scale?
individuals live in areas of local abundance in which the mean is less than the variation are separated by areas of low abundance; interactions between individuals of attraction of individuals to a common resource.
clumped for resources and always next to another group of individuals for common protection
many can die and end up looking like a random assortment; more die by competing creating regular; other things come in back to random animals
What are the trade-offs of allocation in order to reach some resources?
animals can be good at one or two things, but can't be good at everything
1) limits are the extremes not the means; cold and hot
2)don't perform as well at each life stage; bigger plants are more tolerant and the biggest effect on the most vulnerable life stages such as the effects of cold on seedlings
What is the example of scrub oaks?
scrub oaks are maintained by fire; 15 year frequency not every tree is burned down, pitch pin wis usually burned but still producing pinecones and acorns that are more likely to germinate as the heat activates; higher seedling production and light availability. Pitch pine increases in frequency with more plowing; oaks decrease with more plowing as when agriculture goes back to forest the plowed scrub oaks cannot survive but controlled fire other other things in. pitch pines must have lots of light for oaks to form where fire and other things can survive with plowing and moving competing better in less nutrient rich species as scrub oaks grow better in less nutrients.
scrub oaks shaded out shorter vulnerable much of life unlike pitch pine as it grows taller. as body size gets bigger density decreases. big organisms small density. small organisms big density. mammals live at slightly higher density than birds, the biggest choice for more food as birds cannot eat big things. aquatic slightly higher density than terrestrial 3D structure can live on top of each other
What is population abundance?
the number of organisms in a population with the same N. whats different and causing find details.
What are unitary organisms?
single entity whose structure and generally size is determinate ex. humans step at size and don't grow back digits, lizards won't grow 3 tails. determinate growth set size and shape the most popular growth examples count individuals
What are modular organisms?
can add new growing tissues or modules throughout their life ex. plant, coral aspens clonal and benefits from roots even if seperate from the bottom to top of hill. indeterminate growth can add "modules count ramjets as ecological individuals
What are ramets?
1 unit from above=ramet, identical doing well, parthenogenesis budding
What are genets?
1 genet=1 genetic individual. assume cross-over and passing stuff on, genetically distinct individuals
What is population?
population is a group of interbreeding individuals in the same year.
What are specifications between genet and ramet?
genet produce by seed at another place new genet and potentially and genetically different as pollen from someplace else creating offspring that are able to survive other areas.
What is biomass?
rather than exact count of individuals overall size
What is Mark-recapture (Lincoln-Peterson Index)?
capture individuals mark and recapture
What are the assumptions of the mark-recapture?
1) no births
2) no deaths
3) no immigration
5)mix with the rest of the population
6)behave the same as the rest of the population no more or less likely to be caught!
What is discrete population growth?
geometric population growth breeding season; all offspring in spring population suddenly get better each spring, discrete event. not about overlapping generations ex. amphibians, birds, lots of mammals, plants
What is continuous population growth?
exponential growth continuous compounds all time (instantaneous population growth or instantaneous rate of increase rmax= intrinsic rate of increase
What is distribution?
the distribution of a population includes size, shape, and location of area it occupies; pattern of spacing of individuals
What is density?
the number of individuals within one unit area?
What are abundance?
total number of individuals
What is a niche?
energy constraints physical environment places limits on distribution; environmental factors that influence growth survival and reproduction with factors necessary for its existence, when and where they show up
What is a fundamental niche?
physical conditions under which species lives in absence of interactions with other species
What is a realized niche?
The actual niche of species limited by biotic competition, production, and disease.
water, air and habitat can physically limit a species, with knowing a species range is defined as the presence and absence and does not note about how individuals in population distributed in areas where they are present
What are random distributions?
individuals within a population have an equal chance of living anywhere in an area.
What are regular distribution?
individuals uniformly spaced clumped individuals with a much higher probability of being in same areas than others.
What is habitat tolerance?
range at conditions in which a species small geographic range, narrow habitat tolerance and low population density
What is geometric population growth?
discrete annual pulses; growth by any population with pulsed reproduction; successive generations differ in size by constant rate. natural populations have a tremendous capacity for increase and unlimited population growth cannot be maintained in any population for very many generations.
What are the things that guarantee growth rates in populations?
in the presence of abundant resources, populations can grow at geometric or exponential rates.
What is exponential growth?
continuous population growth in an unlimited environment with short periods depend on resources. and it begins growth in favorable environments at low population densities