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1

In his article on mosquitoes, “Little Things That Go Buzzzzz in the Night,” published in the August 2005 issue of Wildlife in North Carolina, NCSU Professor of Entomology, Dr. Clyde Sorenson, said the following:
“…Clearly, from our own intensely personal viewpoint, mosquitoes can’t be much good -- they bite and they transmit diseases. Ecologically, though, they do have value. The larvae can be prey for other animals, and some species are important pollinators (male mosquitoes only feed on plant nectar or sap, and females also drink nectar). More difficult to accept, but probably more importantly, mosquitoes vector, or transmit, diseases to many species of animals in addition to us. While it is certainly an unfortunate outcome for the individual animals infected, these diseases are important in regulating wildlife populations, just as predators are. So mosquitoes do have an important role to play in the web of life, although we have a hard time viewing their position positively.”
How does this quote illustrate the perspective of ecology as a science?
A) This quote illustrates how ecologists, as scientists, attempt to be value-neutral, withholding judgment about whether a particular situation or action is good or bad, viewing that situation solely on its ecological merits.
B) This quote illustrates how ecologists, as scientists, adopt a human perspective, taking into account human social, religious, moral, economic and other interests, judging any particular situation as good or bad.

A) This quote illustrates how ecologists, as scientists, attempt to be value-neutral, withholding judgment about whether a particular situation or action is good or bad, viewing that situation solely on its ecological merits.

2

The PMB 360 students are all in perfect health, maintaining an internal body temperature of 98.6 oF. The classroom in which they are sitting has an air temperature of 75.0 oF. Which of the following principles is illustrated by the situation just described?
A) Ecological systems exist in a dynamic steady state in balance with their physical environment.
B) Ecological systems exist in a dynamic steady state out of balance with their physical environment.

B) Ecological systems exist in a dynamic steady state out of balance with their physical environment

3

Bony fish of freshwater habitats are hyper-osmotic, living in a watery medium that has lower salt concentration than their bodies. As a consequence, these animals have to contend with which of the following?
A) replacing water lost to the surrounding medium while eliminating excess salts
B) retaining salts while eliminating excess water absorbed from the surrounding medium

B) retaining salts while eliminating excess water absorbed from the surrounding medium

4

Marine species of sharks and rays have a unique way of raising the osmotic potential of their blood to that of the surrounding seawater. What is this mechanism?
A) retention of urea in the bloodstream
B) retention of sodium chloride in the bloodstream
C) retention of small carbohydrate molecules in their bloodstream
D) all of the above

A) retention of urea in the bloodstream

5

Why is the enzyme RuBP carboxylase-oxidase (Rubisco) so important in photosynthetic assimilation of carbon?
A) This enzyme is responsible for the conversion of organic acids into glucose.
B) This enzyme is responsible for the conversion of energy contained in light into energy stored in ATP and NADPH.
C) This enzyme is responsible for the conversion of glucose into sucrose.
D) This enzyme is responsible for the incorporation of carbon (from the atmosphere or water) into an organic compound (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate or G3P) available for Calvin-Benson cycle synthesis of glucose.

D) This enzyme is responsible for the incorporation of carbon (from the atmosphere or water) into an organic compound (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate or G3P) available for Calvin-Benson cycle synthesis of glucose.

6

Which of the following statements about C4 plants is false?
A) C4 plants physically separate the first step of photosynthetic carbon assimilation (in mesophyll cells) from the other steps of photosynthesis (in bundle sheath cells).
B) The first chemical product of photosynthetic carbon fixation in C4 plants is glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P), a 3-carbon molecule.

B) The first chemical product of photosynthetic carbon fixation in C4 plants is glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P), a 3-carbon molecule.

7

One of the challenges of being a land plant with leaves is that stomates must be open in order for the plant to obtain CO2 required for photosynthesis, but water also evaporates from the plant via the same stomatal openings. Why is this situation so problematic for plants of warm, dry environments?
A) The tendency of water to exit the leaf far exceeds the tendency of CO2 to enter the leaf, resulting in excessive water loss.
B) The tendency of CO2 to enter the leaf far exceeds the tendency of water to exit the leaf, resulting in CO2 overloading.

A) The tendency of water to exit the leaf far exceeds the tendency of CO2 to enter the leaf, resulting in excessive water loss.

8

Kangaroo rats are nocturnal, and black-capped chickadees are diurnal. Both are seed-eaters. Which aspect of these animals’ ecological relationships is represented by information about activity periods and food requirements?
A) their habitats B) their niches

B) their niches

9

Which of the following must exist for there to be evolution by natural selection?
A) variation among individuals
B) inheritance of that variation
C) differences in survival and reproductive success, or fitness, related to that variation
D) all of the above

D) all of the above

10

A well-known breeder of leopard geckos has been breeding for a mutation on a gene that controls body size. Homozygotes for the mutant allele (we’ll call these GG) are very large (called Super Giants), normal homozygotes (we’ll call these gg) exhibit normal size, and heterozygotes (Gg), called Giants, are intermediate between the Super Giants and normal animals.
The breeder has a large population of animals of known genotype. He would like to determine whether or not Super Giants differ in mean body mass when compared to Giants. He selects at random 10 Super Giant males and 10 Giant males from his breeding population. All animals are about 1 year old and have been maintained under the same conditions. He weighs the animals and compares the results, as seen in the graph below.
Given his interest in evaluating differences in body mass between his two populations (Giants and Super Giants), what will his null hypothesis be?
A) There is no difference in mean body mass between Giants and Super Giants.
B) Giants have a lower mean body mass than Super Giants.
C) Giants have a higher mean body mass than Super Giants.
D) Giants and Super Giants differ in mean body mass.

A) There is no difference in mean body mass between Giants and Super Giants.

11

Given his choice of null hypothesis, which of the remaining choices from question 10 (above) would be the most appropriate alternative hypothesis?
Given his interest in evaluating differences in body mass between his two populations (Giants and Super Giants), what will his null hypothesis be?
A) There is no difference in mean body mass between Giants and Super Giants.
B) Giants have a lower mean body mass than Super Giants.
C) Giants have a higher mean body mass than Super Giants.
D) Giants and Super Giants differ in mean body mass.

D) Giants and Super Giants differ in mean body mass

12

Before performing a statistical analysis (t-test), he guesses the approximate probability of being wrong if he concludes that Giants and Super Giants differ in mean body mass. What is a reasonable guess about this probability, given the results in the figure above?
A) p = 1.05
B) p = 1.0
C) p = 0.04
D) p = 0.0

C) p = 0.04

13

After performing a t-test, he finds that the actual probability of being wrong if he concludes that Giants and Super Giants differ in mean body mass is 0.02. He may now:
A) fail to reject the null hypothesis
B) reject the null hypothesis
C) neither of the above

B) reject the null hypothesis

14

What is the policy regarding hour exams in BIO/PB 360 this fall?
A) There are four hour exams scheduled. However, only three exams will count toward your semester grade. We will drop your lowest score of the four.
B) There are four hour exams scheduled. All four exams count toward your semester grade.

A) There are four hour exams scheduled. However, only three exams will count toward your semester grade. We will drop your lowest score of the four.

15

What is the new policy regarding the final exam in BIO/PB 360 this fall?
A) It will count as 30% toward your semester grade.
B) It will count as 15% toward your semester grade.

B) It will count as 15% toward your semester grade.

16

How can ecology best help each of us understand the role of humans in nature?
A) Ecology provides a reference point of unspoiled nature.
B) Ecology provides a set of moral precepts.
C) Ecology provides a political agenda.
D) Ecology provides a scientific understanding of how natural systems work and how humans function as part of the natural world.

D) Ecology provides a scientific understanding of how natural systems work and how humans function as part of the natural world.

17

Who gave the word "ecology" its current broad meaning?
A) the German zoologist Ernst Haeckel
B) the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
C) the English naturalist Charles Darwin
D) the American ecologist Rachel Carson

A) the German zoologist Ernst Haeckel

18

Of the following fields, all except one focus on the application of ecological understanding to solving problems concerning the environment and its inhabitants. Which is the exception?
A) environmental science
B) applied ecology
C) conservation biology
D) ecology

D) ecology

19

Which of the following systems is comprised of local collections of populations together with their physical and chemical environment?
A) organism B) population C) community D) ecosystem E) biosphere

D) ecosystem

20

It may be said that the approach taken by an ecologist to the study of the natural world depends on the level of ecological organization studied. For example, an ecologist who takes the organism approach to the study of ecology (as in our lecture example of the cactus wren) would most likely be interested in:
A) adaptations of individual organisms that suit them for life in their environment.
B) changes in numbers, resulting from births and deaths, of individuals belonging to a particular species in a particular place.
C) the number and relative abundances of various species living in a particular place.
D) activities of organisms as well as physical and chemical transformations of energy and materials in the soil, atmosphere, and water.
E) transport of energy and materials at the global scale.

A) adaptations of individual organisms that suit them for life in their environment.

21

In class, we discussed research being conducted at an experimental watershed at Coweeta, NC. Scientists at Coweeta monitor streamflow to determine fluxes of materials leaving the watershed via this pathway. What level of ecological organization is the focus of their work?
A) organism B) population C) community D) ecosystem E) biosphere

D) ecosystem

22

Because all ecological systems have biological components, they are exempt from the physical constraints that govern other natural systems.
A) True B) False

B) False

23

Marquis and Whelan conducted research on the role of bird predation in reducing the consumption of plants by insect herbivores. Which of the following features did they incorporate into their experiment?
A) controls reproducing all aspects of the experiment except for the variable of interest
B) additional controls for assessing experimental effects
C) replication to ensure that results were repeatable
D) all of the above

D) all of the above

24

Traditional ecological knowledge (or TEK, for short) may be summarized by the following, which in many ways also summarizes the “take-home message” of PB 360:
A) All things are connected.
B) All things are related.
C) both of the above

C) both of the above

25

When a membrane permeable to water separates water of more negative potential on one side of the membrane from water of less negative potential on the other, what will be the tendency of the water molecules?
A) There will be a net diffusion of water molecules across the membrane from the side of more negative potential to the side of less negative potential.
B) There will be a net diffusion of water molecules across the membrane from the side of less negative potential to the side of more negative potential.
C) There will be equal movement of water molecules across the membrane in both directions.
D) There will be no movement of water molecules across the membrane.

B) There will be a net diffusion of water molecules across the membrane from the side of less negative potential to the side of more negative potential.

26

Some algae living at shallow depths in the ocean (the alga Ulva is an example) have photosynthetic pigments much like those of terrestrial plants, absorbing strongly in the red and blue parts of the visible spectrum and reflecting in the green part of the spectrum. However, algae living deeper in the ocean (the red alga Porphyra is an example) have specialized pigments that enable them to absorb __________ light.
A) violet B) orange C) green D) brown E) red

C) green

27

In sea gulls living in cold regions, cold blood returning to the body from extremities (legs and feet) flows in a direction opposite that of warm blood entering the extremities from the body. These opposing flows enable the animal to capture some of the heat contained in blood flowing from the body and return that heat to the body. This kind of circulation has a special name. What is it?
A) countercurrent circulation B) general conditioning
C) inverse processing D) reverse osmosis

A) countercurrent circulation

28

Which of the following represents adaptation(s) of the kangaroo rat to life in a desert environment?
A) gathering water each morning from the dew that forms on leaf surfaces
B) spending daytime hours in a relatively cool, comfortable burrow
C) migrating north during the summer months
D) all of the above

B) spending daytime hours in a relatively cool, comfortable burrow

29

Kangaroo rats can obtain all the water they need from the seeds they eat. Which of the following contributes the majority of the water they obtain from seeds?
A) water absorbed by seeds from the atmosphere
B) water that results from oxidation of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates contained in seeds

B) water that results from oxidation of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates contained in seeds

30

Black-capped chickadees utilize torpor (a voluntary drop in body temperature) as an important adaptation to surviving long, cold winter nights. Why do these tiny birds engage in torpor?
A) If they did not engage in torpor, they would not sleep well, and they would be less efficient at foraging the next day.
B) If they did not engage in torpor, they would be unable to manufacture enzymes that function better at lower temperatures.
C) If they did not engage in torpor, their energy demands would exceed their available energy reserves.
D) If they did not engage in torpor, their relatively high body temperature would make them vulnerable to predators, who can detect infrared radiation emitted by warm birds.

C) If they did not engage in torpor, their energy demands would exceed their available energy reserves.