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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (51)
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1

Which of the following increases as one moves poleward from the tropics?
A) length of the growing season C) seasonal variation in temperature
B) mean annual temperature D) all of the above

C) seasonal variation in temperature

2

The Intertropical Convergence (ITC) is a region of substantial uplift of air heated in contact with the earth’s surface. At any given time of year, where is the ITC located?
A) at the earth’s true equator (0o latitude) B) at the earth’s solar equator

B) at the earth’s solar equator

3

It has sometimes been said that “night is the winter of the tropics”. What is meant by this?
A) Differences between night and day temperatures often exceed differences between mean monthly temperatures of winter and summer.
B) Most locations in the tropics experience sub-freezing temperatures at night, but never during the day.
C) Temperature variation in the tropics is unpredictable.

A) Differences between night and day temperatures often exceed differences between mean monthly temperatures of winter and summer.

4

Your family is planning a holiday trip in late December and early January to the resort city of Cancún, Mexico, located on the Yucatán peninsula at 21o north latitude. Because this trip is during the northern hemisphere winter, your family can count on:
A) relatively dry conditions throughout their vacation.
B) heavy rains throughout their vacation.

A) relatively dry conditions throughout their vacation.

5

High-pressure air masses descending to the earth at approximately 30° north and south of the equator create what conditions at the earth's surface?
A) arid climate D) constant temperature
B) unusually high precipitation E) all of the above
C) unusually high snowfall

A) arid climate

6

Why are the oceans off the western coasts of the continents highly productive?
A) Upwelling of water from deeper layers carries nutrients to the surface.
B) Sunlight is more intense.
C) Water temperatures are higher.
D) The lack of herbivores leads to higher production.

A) Upwelling of water from deeper layers carries nutrients to the surface.

7

The Atacama-Peruvian Desert lies adjacent to the south Pacific Ocean along the western coast of South America at about 30o south latitude. The Atacama is one of the places receiving the lowest precipitation on earth, and yet it is in close proximity to the ocean. Which of the following is responsible for the desert conditions there?
A) The Atacama is located at about 30o S latitude, where dry, descending air masses predominate.
B) The Atacama is located adjacent to cold, northward-flowing ocean surface currents that tend to strip moisture from moist air masses that flow toward land from the South Pacific Ocean.
C) Both A and B are correct.

C) Both A and B are correct.

8

Please select the correct ranking of three forest biomes from most to least diverse, in terms of number of tree species.
A) boreal forest, temperate seasonal forest, tropical rain forest
B) temperate seasonal forest, tropical rain forest, boreal forest
C) tropical rain forest, boreal forest, temperate seasonal forest
D) boreal forest, tropical rain forest, temperate seasonal forest
E) tropical rain forest, temperate seasonal forest, boreal forest

E) tropical rain forest, temperate seasonal forest, boreal forest

9

Where would you NOT go to see extensive and well-developed examples of the boreal forest (taiga) biome?
A) Canada and Alaska C) southern hemisphere
B) northern Europe D) northern Asia

C) southern hemisphere

10

In Heinrich Walter’s climate diagrams (see text Figure 5.6, above), each 10oC increase in temperature requires a minimum increase of 20 mm of monthly precipitation for there to be sufficient moisture for plant growth (no surplus or deficit). In the diagram above, if the monthly temperature is 10oC, 20 mm of precipitation are required. How much precipitation is required if the monthly temperature is 20oC?
A) 40 mm B) 60 mm C) 80 mm D) 100 mm E) 120 mm

A) 40 mm

11

The terrestrial biome concept emphasizes differences in plant form related to variation in environment. Why has the terrestrial biome concept been difficult to apply to aquatic systems?
A) Aquatic systems lack plants altogether.
B) The environments of aquatic systems vary little from one place to another.
C) Aquatic ecologists have been uninterested in plants.
D) The producers of many aquatic systems are single-celled algae, with little characteristic large-scale structure.

D) The producers of many aquatic systems are single-celled algae, with little characteristic large-scale structure.

12

The distinction between riffles and pools is most appropriate in which of the following aquatic systems?
A) streams
B) rivers
C) lakes
D) estuaries
E) oceans

A) streams

13

Coral reefs are to open oceans as __________.
A) tropical rain forests are to deserts B) deserts are to tropical rain forests

A) tropical rain forests are to deserts

14

Many temperate lakes exhibit vertical mixing of surface and deeper waters, called overturn, twice annually. During which seasons does overturn occur?
A) winter and spring C) winter and summer
B) fall and spring D) fall and summer

B) fall and spring

15

Ice skaters get excited when ice begins to form on the surfaces of temperate lakes during winter. At this time, where is the coldest water in the lake?
A) At the bottom, just above the benthic zone.
B) At the top, just below the ice.

B) At the top, just below the ice.

16

Which of the following is an important component of life history?
A) age at maturity B) parity C) fecundity D) longevity E) all of the above

E) all of the above

17

Much of the effort in the study of life histories has been to understand the fitness consequences of changing the allocation of limited time and resources to competing functions.
A) True B) False

A) True

18

A mature female sockeye salmon swims up to 5,000 km from her Pacific Ocean feeding ground to the mouth of a coastal river in British Columbia and then another 1,000 km upstream to her spawning ground. Once there, she lays thousands of eggs in her single reproductive event and promptly dies. The salmon's reproductive life history is referred to as:
A) semelparous B) iteroparous C) oddparous D) evenparous E) nonparous

A) semelparous

19

A female African elephant produces a single offspring at a time at intervals of several years, caring for her young for an extended period before reproducing again. The elephant's reproductive life history is referred to as:
A) semelparous B) iteroparous

B) iteroparous

20

Where would you place the elephant (previous question) on the “Slow-Fast Continuum”?
A) Slow (“K”)
B) Fast (“r”)

A) Slow (“K”)

21

"Bet hedging" (spreading reproduction over both good and bad years) has been proposed as an advantage to which of the following life histories?
A) semelparity
B) iteroparity

B) iteroparity

22

Which of the following British biologists first placed the clutch size of birds in an evolutionary context?
A) J.P. Grime B) Charles Darwin C) E.P. Odum D) A.G. Tansley E) David Lack

E) David Lack

23

The average European magpie’s (Pica pica) clutch size of seven eggs was manipulated by Swedish ecologist Gören Hogstedt by adding or removing eggs, to make up clutches of five to nine eggs. What was the most productive clutch size (number of chicks fledged)?
A) five eggs B) six eggs C) seven eggs D) eight eggs E) nine eggs

C) seven eggs

24

Imagine two different genotypes of a particular plant species. Both genotypes have a hermaphroditic phenotype (each plant is functionally male and female). Genotype 1 has an annual phenotype: individuals of this genotype produce offspring (seeds) at the end of the year, then die. Genotype 2 has an immortal phenotype: individuals of this genotype produce offspring (seeds) at the end of each year and live forever. Assume that the only mortality affecting our two hypothetical genotypes is the death of mature annual plants after they reproduce. If each individual of the genotype 1 (annual phenotype) produces 102 seeds, and each individual of genotype 2 (immortal phenotype) produces 100 seeds, which genotype will increase more rapidly in the population?
A) genotype 1 (annual phenotype) B) genotype 2 (immortal phenotype)

A) genotype 1 (annual phenotype)

25

By breeding at an earlier age, an organism will reap the obvious benefit of increased fecundity at that age. Is there any potential cost associated with breeding at an earlier age?
A) Yes, there is a cost: reduced survival to older ages.
B) There is no cost associated with breeding at an earlier age.

A) Yes, there is a cost: reduced survival to older ages.

26

Storm-petrels live 30 to 40 years. Thrushes rarely live beyond 3 to 4 years. Even if you knew nothing more about the life histories of these two species, could you make an educated guess about which species has the longer prereproductive period?
A) Yes, the longer-lived species (storm-petrel) probably has the longer prereproductive period.
B) Yes, the shorter-lived species (thrush) probably has the longer prereproductive period.
C) No, information about maximum age is insufficient background for an educated guess.

A) Yes, the longer-lived species (storm-petrel) probably has the longer prereproductive period

27

In class, we performed a “thought experiment” involving two fish genotypes, each with a distinctive phenotype (see Table 7.3 above). For fish living a fairly long time (6 or more years), what would you predict to be the better strategy (in terms of lifetime reproductive output) of allocating resources to growth and fecundity?
A) slow growth and high fecundity
B) rapid growth and low fecundity

B) rapid growth and low fecundity

28

Dr. Hoffmann from the Department of Plant Biology showed that a genotype exhibiting a semelparous life history could outperform (in terms of lifetime reproductive output) either of the iteroparous genotypes described in the question above. What was the semelparous life history that Dr. Hoffmann described?
A) a fish that puts all its resources into reproduction at the end of its first year of life and dies
B) a fish that puts all its resources into reproduction at the end of its sixth year of life and dies

B) a fish that puts all its resources into reproduction at the end of its sixth year of life and dies

29

The widespread occurrence of sexual reproduction in the biological world is actually surprising, given the attendant costs. Each of the following describes one of these costs, with one exception. The exception describes a benefit of sex - which one is it?
A) When organisms reproduce sexually, each parent contributes one half of the genes of each of its offspring.
B) The shuffling of genes that occurs during sexual reproduction results in the production of genetically varied offspring that may have defenses to which the parents’ pathogens are not well adapted.
C) Because all individuals in asexually reproducing populations produce offspring, such populations increase in size at approximately twice the rate of sexually reproducing populations.
D) Mating behaviors can be risky and expensive, facilitating spread of diseases, increasing exposure to predation, and taking time away from feeding and other maintenance activities.

B) The shuffling of genes that occurs during sexual reproduction results in the production of genetically varied offspring that may have defenses to which the parents’ pathogens are not well adapted.

30

In the previous question, item A states: “When organisms reproduce sexually, each parent contributes one half of the genes of each of its offspring.” What name do we apply to this situation?
A) cost associated with maintaining breeding territories
B) cost of maintaining sexual machinery (i.e., gonads)
C) twofold cost of meiosis

C) twofold cost of meiosis