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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (51)
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31

What is the principal chemical reserve that black-capped chickadees depend on for their energy needs during a long winter night?
A) proteins
B) fats
C) carbohydrates
D) all of the above in equal amounts

B) fats

32

It has sometimes been said that “night is the winter of the tropics”. What is meant by this?
A) Differences between night and day temperatures often exceed differences between mean monthly temperatures of winter and summer.
B) Most locations in the tropics experience sub-freezing temperatures at night, but never during the day.
C) Temperature variation in the tropics is unpredictable.

A) Differences between night and day temperatures often exceed differences between mean monthly temperatures of winter and summer.

33

If “night is the winter of the tropics” (previous question), what aspect of phenotypic plasticity do some hummingbirds use to deal with cool nighttime temperatures?
A) They migrate to the Antarctic.
B) They bury themselves in leaf litter on the forest floor to stay warm.
C) They seek the warmer microclimate of large cities.
D) They undergo torpor.

D) They undergo torpor.

34

Why did average beak size increase in individuals of Darwin's medium ground finch (and their progeny) during a period of severe drought in the Galápagos?
A) Individuals eating the harder seeds available during the drought developed larger beaks and passed this trait on to their offspring.
B) Individuals with larger beaks could eat the harder seeds available during the drought and survived/reproduced better than individuals with smaller beaks.
C) Individuals with larger beaks are always at an advantage.
D) The observed change in beak size was purely the result of chance.

B) Individuals with larger beaks could eat the harder seeds available during the drought and survived/reproduced better than individuals with smaller beaks.

35

The increase in beak size in Darwin’s medium ground finch (previous question) is an example of which of the following kinds of natural selection?
A) stabilizing selection
B) directional selection
C) disruptive selection
D) divergent selection

B) directional selection

36

The change in frequency of melanistic (dark colored) peppered moths as a result of industrialization in England was an example of:
A) stabilizing selection.
B) directional selection.
C) disruptive selection.
D) divergent selection.

B) directional selection.

37

Which of the following research approaches did H.B.D. Kettlewell use in his classic studies of evolution of coloration in English peppered moths?
A) mark-recapture experiments
B) predator observation experiments
C) both of the above

C) both of the above

38

Individual organisms can adapt to changes in their environments in all of the following ways:
A) evolution by natural selection, phenotypic plasticity, acclimatization
B) phenotypic plasticity, acclimatization, irreversible developmental responses
C) evolution by natural selection, acclimatization, irreversible developmental responses
D) evolution by natural selection, phenotypic plasticity, irreversible developmental responses

B) phenotypic plasticity, acclimatization, irreversible developmental responses

39

All of the following are examples of acclimatization except:
A) Water fleas develop a protective helmet and long tail spine in response to the presence of predators.
B) Trout produce different forms of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase in winter and summer.
C) Humans increase the density of red blood cells when they spend time at high elevations.
D) Rabbits grow thicker fur in winter.

A) Water fleas develop a protective helmet and long tail spine in response to the presence of predators.

40

In class (and in our textbook), the African grasshopper, Gastrimargus africanus, is used as an example of an irreversible developmental response. Why do we think that these grasshoppers develop different epidermal coloration at different times of year?
A) Matching coloration alerts fewer competitors when food is discovered.
B) Matching coloration helps them avoid detection by would-be predators.
C) Matching coloration minimizes absorption of solar radiation.
D) Matching coloration makes them more attractive to potential mates.

B) Matching coloration helps them avoid detection by would-be predators.

41

Which of the following was an interesting outcome of the reciprocal transplant experiments carried out by Niewiarowski and Roosenberg on fence lizards (see text Figure 6.20, below)?
A) Native lizards and transplants from New Jersey performed equally well in Nebraska.
B) Nebraska lizards performed equally well in Nebraska and in New Jersey.
C) New Jersey lizards performed about the same in New Jersey and in Nebraska.
D) Each of the above was an interesting outcome of this experiment.

C) New Jersey lizards performed about the same in New Jersey and in Nebraska.

42

Highbush blueberry plants belonging to a particular species grow in a wide range of environments in North Carolina. Plants growing in acidic bogs are slower growing than plants on fertile, better-drained floodplains. In a reciprocal transplant study, plants from a bog were transplanted to a floodplain and plants from a floodplain were transplanted to a bog. The transplants from the bog performed better in the floodplain, but not as well as plants native to the floodplain. The transplants from the floodplain performed more poorly in the bog, about the same as plants native to the bog. What can we conclude from this experiment about the causes of differences in growth rate between the bog and floodplain populations?
A) They are genetically determined.
B) They reflect phenotypic plasticity.
C) Both of the above conclusions are correct.

C) Both of the above conclusions are correct.

43

A reaction norm is:
A. the phenotypic response of a particular individual or population when exposed to different
environments
B. the change in allele frequencies of a population when experiencing natural selection.

A. the phenotypic response of a particular individual or population when exposed to different
environments

44

In the figure above (from Active Learning Exercise #6), we are comparing reaction norms of two
populations of the same species, one (population ) normally found in environment A, and the
other (population ) normally found in environment B. These two populations are involved in a
reciprocal transplant experiment (the arrows indicate transplantation and change in phenotypic
expression, if any). In which of the three cases above (A, B, or C) does the outcome of the
experiment NOT provide evidence for a genotype-environment interaction?
A) A
B) B
C) C

A) A

45

In the figure above, in which of the three cases do we find evidence for BOTH genotypic
differentiation (G) AND variation due to environmental factors (E), also called phenotypic
plasticity?
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) A, B, and C

D) A, B, and C

46

In the illustration above (text Figure 6.16), we see graphs of photosynthetic rate as a function of leaf temperature for three plant species acclimated at high (H) and low (L) temperatures. What process was investigated by these experiments?
A) kin selection B) acclimatization C) irreversible developmental responses

B) acclimatization

47

In the figure above, which of the three species shows that it is adaptable to a wide range of environmental temperatures?
A) Larrea
B) Atriplex
C) Tidestromia

A) Larrea

48

In the past some ecologists may have overlooked evolution in their quest to learn how ecological systems worked. In our SimUText chapter called “Evolution for Ecology,” the authors conclude that “evolution is a process that ecologists cannot afford to ignore.” Why do the authors make this point?
A) The authors really don’t support this assertion in the chapter.
B) Rapid evolution of ecological relevant traits is clearly possible, driven by both natural events and human activities.
C) The authors are evolutionary biologists and probably don’t appreciate the ecological perspective.

B) Rapid evolution of ecological relevant traits is clearly possible, driven by both natural events and human activities.

49

The authors of the SimUText chapter entitled “Evolution for Ecology” promote __________ in the cultivation of cotton when pink bollworm is a potential pest.
A) exclusive use of transgenic (Bollgard) cotton that makes the Bt toxin
B) exclusive use of non-transgenic cotton
C) planting a mix of transgenic and non-transgenic cotton

C) planting a mix of transgenic and non-transgenic cotton

50

The approach advocated by the authors of the SimUText chapter entitled “Evolution for Ecology” (see previous question) is an example of:
A) the rejection of farming practices based on an understanding of ecology and evolution
B) integrated pest management in farming
C) the “spray and pray” approach to farming

B) integrated pest management in farming

51

You find a tick firmly attached to your leg after working in the field during the summer. A few days later you wake up with a fever and other flu-like symptoms. Should you consult a health professional?
A) No, everyone gets the flu now and then. Don’t bother the doctor.
B) Yes, these symptoms could be indicative of a tick-borne illness, like Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Check with your doctor.

B) Yes, these symptoms could be indicative of a tick-borne illness, like Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Check with your doctor.