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Flashcards in Exam 2- 1/2 Deck (49):
1

tumor targeting antibodies

monoclonal antibody designed to target oncoproteins expressed by tumor cells and to cause an immune response that destroys cancer cells (target therapy)

2

immunomodulatory antibody

monoclonal antibodies specifically interacts with immuno-regulatory molecules, which elicits or restores an existing anti-cancer immune response

3

adoptive T cell transfer

treatment using host T cells to boost the natural ability of immune activity to fight cancer. T cells are isolated from the patients' tumor and grown into large batches in the lab. these T cells are then infused into the patient body to enhance immune response against cancer cells

4

immunostimulatory cytokines

multiple functional proteins that play important roles in body's immune responses and have the immune-regulator activity to control cancer cell growth. the 2 pain types of cytokines used to treat cancer are interferon alpha/beta and IL-2

5

cancer-therapeutic vaccines

APC with PAP/GM-CSF as the active component of the vaccine to stimulate immune response against cancer. sipuleucel-T is the first FDA approved therapeutic vaccine for prostate cancer treatment

6

innate immunity agonists

bacillus calmette-guerin (BCG): an innate immunity-stimulus used to treat bladder cancer. when inserted directly into the bladder with a catheter, BCG causes a strong innate immune/inflammatory response against cancer cells

7

monoclonal antibodies (mAbs)

produced from a single B lymphocyte, either from mouse, human or other species

8

murine mAbs

derived entirely from mouse, usually mouse hybridoma cells by the fusion of mouse myeloma cells with spleen B- cells

9

chimeric mAbs

molecularly constructed IgG with the variable regions derived from a murine source and constant region from human

10

humanized mAbs

molecularly constructed IgG with the antigen-binding sequences (CDRs) derived from a mouse and all others from human

11

human mAbs

derived entirely from a human source, currently by transgenic mice, phage display, human hybridoma and human B cell lines

12

therapeutic antibody MOAs

1. naked therapeutic antibody.
2. conjugated therapeutic antibody
3. immuno-regulatory therapeutic antibody
4. bispecific (dual targeting) antibody

13

naked therapeutic antibody

directly targets receptors or oncoproteins on cell surface of tumor cells to exert killing and growth inhibition effects

14

conjugated therapeutic antibody

targeting cell surface proteins for delivering highly potent cytotoxins or radioisotopes for tumor cell killing

15

immuno-regulatory therapeutic antibody

remove the inhibitory signals and restore T cell response to eliminate tumors (aka immune checkpoint therapy)

16

bispecific antibody

engage T cell CD3 and cellular markers on tumor cells to facilitate T cell-mediated tumor cytotoxicity

17

conjugated therapeutic antibodies are conjugated with

highly potent cytotoxins known as antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) (tubulin/DNA inhibitors) or radio-isotopes (iodine/yttrium)

18

maytansinoid & monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE)

tubulin inhibitors

19

calicheamicin

DNA inhibitor

20

tositumomab

iodine-131

21

ibritumomab

yttrium-137

22

ipilimumab

CTLA-4 inhbitor
Yervoy
human mAb
melanoma
ADRs: immune-mediated rxns

23

nivolumab and pembrolizumab

PD-1 inhibitor
human mAb
Opdivo
melanoma
squamous NSCLC
ADRs: immune-mediated rxns

24

trastuzumab is specific to

HER2
aka Herceptin
humanized

25

cetuximab is specific to

EGFR (HER1)
(Erbitux)
chimeric

26

ado-trastuzumab emtansine is specific to

HER2
kadcyla
humanized
linked with maytansinoid

27

Severe ADR of trastuzumab

cardiomyopathy (7%)
also some pulmonary tox

28

what cancers is cetuximab used in?

head and neck cancer
colorectal cancer withour KRAS mutation

29

premedicate cetuximab with

an H1 antagonists

30

cetuximab severe ADRs

cardiopulmonary arrest and sudden death.
also dermatologic toxicity- liming sun exposure

31

bevacizumab is specific to

VEGF
Avastin
humanized

32

bevacizumab MOA

binds to VEGF (NOT the receptor) and prevents interaction

33

bevacizumab indications

metastatin colorectal cancer, non-squamouse NSCLC, glioblastoma, metastatic renal cell carcinoma

34

bevacizumab severe ADRs

GI perforation (2%), wound healing complications, hemorrhage

35

rituximab

naked antibody specific to CD20
Rituxan
chimeric
NHL

36

tositumomab

I-131 labeled antiboy specific to CD-20

37

alemtuzumab

naked antibody specific to CD52

38

brentuximab vedotin

antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) targeting CD30 for drug deliver

39

premedicate rituxan with

APAP and an antihistamine

40

severe ADRs with rituxan

infusion rxns, tumor lysis syndrome, severe mucocutaneous rxns, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

41

ibrituxumomab tiuxetan

murine IgG conjugated with indium-111 or yttrium-90
Zevalin
specific to CD20
NHL

42

ibrituxumomab serious ADRs

infusion rxn, severe cytopenias, hematologic toxicity (delayed in onset and takes 2-4 wks to recover), cutaneous and mucocutaneous rxn (fatal)

43

brentuximab vedotin (an ADC)

chimeric conjugated with MMAE
binds CD 30
Adcetris
hodgkin lymphoma

44

patient's to receive brentuximab must have

good renal and liver function

45

3 major ADRs of brentuximab

bone marrow damage, reproductive damage, liver damage

46

what 2 signals are required for T cell activation?

TCR/MHC complex and CD28/B7

47

CTLA-4 blocks

co-stimulation and therefor no T cell activation

48

blinatumomab

bispecific human mAb
CD3 and CD19
Blincyto
ph negative ALL

49

blinatumomab ADRs

side effects from both the tumor side and T cell activation