Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (148)
Which two memory cells can be produced efficiently even when no immune cells have been infected by the attacker?
Memory B and Memory Helper T
According to our text, what are the 3 types of vaccines?
T/F: Non-infectious vaccines do not cause the production of memory killer T cells.
True: non-infectious vaccines only make mem B cells and mem T helper cells
In killed (non-infectious) vaccines, how is the virus or bacteria killed?
Using chemicals such as formaldehyde
Bacterial toxin vaccines may weaken the toxin with ___, resulting in something called a ___.
T/F: Non-infectious vaccines are designed to infect the host but only weakly.
False: Non-infectious designed NOT to infect the host
A ___ ____ vaccine is one that contains the weakened version of the pathogen.
Live attenuated vaccines result in what types of memory cells?
Memory B Cells
Memory helper T cells
Memory killer T cells
T/F: A carrier type of vaccine yields all 3 types of memory cells.
What is a carrier vaccine?
A single gene from a pathogenic microbe is put into a virus that doesn't cause disease...virus infects host's APC and will be presented on MHC I
What is the purpose of an adjuvant?
Helps stimulate the immune system by attracting phagocytes (but should not have any antigenic effect by itself)
Th1 Helper T cells utilize what 3 classical cytokines?
TNF, INF-gamma, IL-2
Th1 helper T cells are useful in viral and ___ attacks whereas Th2 helper T cells are useful in ____ attacks.
What cytokines are released by Th2 helper T cells?
IL-4, IL-5, IL-13
What vaccine still contains thimerosal as a preservative?
Alum generally induces a Th1- or Th2-biased response?
Which interleukin is the main stimulus for microglial activation?
IL-1Beta, (which is one of the cytokines produced at the site of aluminum adjuvant injection)
T/F: Aluminum accumulates in the mitochondria and the nucleus of cells.
How much aluminum is absorbed in the GI tract and what organ is responsible for its excretion?
Only 0.3% is absorbed; kidneys
So why's aluminum a big deal if our kidneys just eliminate it anyway?
Vaccines bypass GI tract; 40% of Al accumulates in adults and up to 75% of Al can be retained in neonates
What is the most common environmental source of aluminum?
Antacids, (but keep in mind those pass GI tract and should be eliminated fairly successfully)
T/F: There seems to be a correlation, (not necessarily causation), between incr in aluminum adjuvants and an increase in autism spectrum disorder.
What type of vaccine is the Pneumococcal disease vaccine (Pc vaccine)?
T/F: The meningococcal vaccine, DTaP vaccine, and hepatitis B vaccine are all infectious live vaccines.
False: ...non-infectious vaccines
If the mom doesn't have hepatitis B, is it still necessary for her infant to have the shot?
The rotavirus vaccine is what type of vaccine?
Infectious live vaccine
What type of vaccine is the polio vaccine: infectious, non-infectious, or carrier?
The MMR vaccine is a/an ____ type vaccine?
What are the 4 types of influenza vaccines?
1. Whole virus inactivated
2. Subunit inactivated
3. Split virus inactivated
4. Live attenuated, cold-adapted