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Flashcards in GU Cancer Deck (65)
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31

Epidemiology of Testicular Cancer

Most common cancer between 15-35 years old
Spread by lymphatic & blood
Curable if discovered early

32

Testicular Cancer Germ Cell Tumors

Seminomas
Non-seminomas (more aggressive)

33

Testicular Cancer Non-Germ Cell Tumors

Lydia cell
Sertoli cell

34

Seminoma Testicular Cancer

Slow growing tumor
Men 30s & 40s
Sensitive to radiation

35

Non-seminoma Testicular Cancer

More common
Quicker growing
4 sub-types: embyonal, yolk sac, choriocarcinoma, teratoma
Occur in teen years & early 40s

36

Causes of Testicular Cancer

Cryptochidism
Family history
Klinefelter syndrome
Previous history of testicular cancer
Caucasian

37

Presentation of Testicular Cancer

Painless testicular lump
Enlarging testicle
Accumulation around the testicle (hydrocele)
Metastatic disease

38

Symptoms of Metastatic Disease

Swelling of lower extremities
Back pain
Cough
Gynecomastia

39

Diagnosis of Testicular Cancer

Scrotal ultrasound
Chest x-ray
CT scan
Tumor markers: beta-hCG, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), lactate dyhydrogenase (LDH)

40

Staging of Testicular Cancer

Stage I: confined to testicle
Stage II: metastases to retroperitoneal nodes
Stage III: metastases above the diaphragm or to visceral organs

41

Treatment of Testicular Cancer

Radical orchiectomy
Depending on stage: seminoma (radiation, chemo, or both), non-seminoma (retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, surveillance, chemo)

42

Most Common Type of Penile Cancer

Squamous cell carcinoma

43

Risk Factors of Penile Cancer

HPV
Age: 50+
Smegma
Phimosis

44

Presentation of Penile Cancer

Growth or sore on the penis
Skin thickening on penis
Discharge with foul odor from under the foreskin
Pain in the penis
Swollen lymph nodes in groin
Irregular swelling at the end of the penis

45

Diagnosis of Penile Cancer

Biopsy

46

Staging of Penile Cancer

Stage 0: not grown below the surface layer of the skin
Stage 1: grown just below the surface layer of the skin
Stage 2: invasion into the shaft or corpora; no nodes or mets
Stage 3: tumor confined to penis; operable inguinal nodal mets
Stage 4: tumor involves adjacent structures; inoperable inguinal lymph nodes and/or distant mets

47

Treatment of Penile Cancer

Laser therapy
Mohs surgery
Partial or total penectomy
Lymph node dissection
Radiation

48

Epidemiology of Bladder Cancer

Most common urologic malignancy
Majority transitional cell carcinoma
Women > men: 3-4:1

49

Etiology of bladder Cancer

Tobacco exposure
Industrial exposure
Chemotherapy

50

Presentation of Bladder Cancer

Painless microscopic or gross hematuria
Frequency
Dysuria
Back/flank pain

51

Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer

Urinalysis
Cystoscopy
Urine cytology
CT IVP
Biopsy

52

Staging of Bladder Cancer

Stage 0: papillary lesions relatively benign or carcinoma in situ
Stage 1: tumor invades submucosa or lamina propria
Stage 2: invasion into muscle
Stage 3: extends beyond muscle into the peri-vesical fat
Stage 4: extension into adjacent organs

53

Treatment of Bladder Cancer

Biologic therapy
Chemotherapy
Surgery: TURBT, radical cystectomy with urinary diversion, partial cystectomy
Radiation

54

Types of Renal Cancer

Renal cell carcinoma
Transitional cell carcinoma
Sarcoma
Wilms tumor

55

Risk Factors for Renal Cancer

Smoking
Male > Female (2-3:1)
Obesity
HTN
Family history

56

Presentation of Renal Cancer

Hematuria
Pain/pressure in flank
Fatigue

57

Diagnosis of Renal Cancer

UA
Biopsy
CT IVP
Cystoscopy/Nephro-ureteroscopy

58

Staging of Renal Cancer

Stage 1: tumor

59

Treatment of Renal Cancer

Radio frequency ablation (RFA)
Surgery: radical or partial nephrectomy
Radiation

60

Wilms Tumor

Kidney cancer in children
Most frequently between ages 3-4
Female slightly greater than males