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Flashcards in Physiology Deck (71)
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1

What promotes the conversion to testes?

Testis-determining factor

2

What do seminiferous tubules produce?

Sperm
Sertoli cells

3

What cells secrete testosterone?

Leydig cells

4

When do the testes descend into the scrotum?

Shortly befor birth

5

Define Tunica Albiginea

Fibrous capsule of the testes

6

Define Tunica Vaginalis

Surrounding the seminiferous tubules

7

Define Testes

Egg-shaped structures outside the abdominal cavity in the scrotum

8

Where do the testicular arteries branch from?

Abdominal aorta

9

What helps to cool off the warm blood from the testicular arteries?

Pampiniform plexus

10

When do the testicles descend?

7-12 weeks fetal life
7-9 months fetal life

11

Why is testicular descent important?

Risk of hernias
Increased risk of testicular cancer

12

Function of the Scrotum

Houses testes

13

Muscles that Affect the Surface Area of the Scrotum

Dartos muscle (wrinkles)
Cremaster (elevates)

14

Site of Sperm Production

Seminiferous tubules

15

Path of Sperm from Testes to Vagina

Seminiferous tubules
Efferent ducts
Epididymus
Vas deferens (Ductus deferens)
Ejaculatory duct
Urethra (prostatic)
Penis

16

How do sperm move from the efferent ducts to the epididymus?

Peristaltic movements

17

Seminal Vesicles

Secrete fluid high in fructose (energy for sperm to swim)
Excrete prostaglandins: increases muscle contraction & helps with cervical mucus
70% of semen fluid

18

Prostate Gland

Fibromuscular gland
Add fluid to the semen (make it more alkaline)

19

2 Issues with the Prostate Gland

BPH
Cancer

20

Bulbourethral Glands (Cowper Glands)

Helps to become more alkaline

21

Where does seminal fluid come from?

Genital ducts
Accessory organs

22

Define Penis

Shaft that ends in a tip

23

Define Glans Penis

Tip of the penis

24

Define Foreskin

Loose skin of the penis shaft folds to cover the glans

25

Portions of the Penis

Corpus cavernosa
Corpus spongiosum

26

Hormone Path to Leydig Cells

GnRH
LH
Gonads
Testosterone (negative feedback loop)

27

Hormone Path to Sertoli Cells

GnRH
FSH
Inhibin (negative feedback loop)

28

Endocrine Function of the Testes

Differentiation of male genital tract during fetal development
Induces development of primary and secondary sex characteristics
Anabolic effects
Promotes spermatogenesis & maturation of sperm
Stimulates erythropoiesis

29

Testosterone on Development of Primary & Secondary Sex Characteristics

Gonadal function
External genitalia & accessory organs
Male voice timbre
Male skin characteristics
Male hair distribution

30

Anabolic Effects of Testosterone

Promotes protein metabolism
Promotes musculoskeletal growth
Influences subcutaneous fat distribution