Intracranial Haemorrhage Flashcards Preview

Neurology > Intracranial Haemorrhage > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intracranial Haemorrhage Deck (41):
1

what fluid does a subarachnoid haemorrhage bleed into?

CSF

2

what are the most common reasons for a subarachnoid haemorrhage to occur?

berry aneurysm
sometimes AVM

3

where in the circle of willis are berry aneurysms usually found?

junctions between branching arteries

4

what is the main presenting feature of subarachnoid haemorrhage and why?

sudden onset severe headache (often described as being hit with brick/baseball bat)

due to full systolic blood pressure entering CSF space after aneurysm ruptures (normally this pressure is 0)

5

why can subarachnoid haemorrhages cause symptoms similar to that of meningitis?

rupture of aneurysm causes release of inflammatory chemicals into CSF space

irritation of meninges causes neck pain and stiffness and photophobia

6

other than symptoms of meningitis, what can present in a subarachnoid haemorrhage?

decreased conscious level
neurological deficit
retinal / vitreous haemorrhage on fundoscopy
CNIII plasy due to compression

7

what are the potential differentials for a sudden onset headache?

subarachnoid haemorrhage
migraine
benign coital cephalgia (due to patient over exerting themselves, often during sex)

8

why does CSF appear black on CT whilst acute blood appears hyperintense?

CSF - not a lot of electrons to pick up xrays

blood - rich in ions so lots of electrons to pick up xrays

9

explain the appearance of subarachnoid haemorrhage on CT?

hyperintense distribution in shape of circle of willis in centre of image

10

if a CT scan for a suspected subarachnoid haemorrhage is negative, what further investigation should be done and what can be found?

lumbar puncture (dont delay unless contraindicated)

either blood stained CSF or xanthochromic appearance (yellow due to blood break down products)

11

what is meant by a traumatic tap?

blood is found in lumbar puncture due to rupturing a small vessel when taking the sample
not because blood in CSF

12

what artery is catheterised during a CT angiogram of the head?

femoral artery feeds catheter up to each artery supplying brain - allows injection of contrast

13

why would a contrast appear to be escaping on a CT angiogram?

aneurysm has ruptured and contrast is leaking and forming a haematoma

14

what are the main complications of subarachnoid haemorrhage?

re-bleeding
delayed ischaemic deficit
hydrocephalus
hyponatraemia
seizures

15

why do aneurysms usually stop bleeding relatively quickly?

arteries go into vasospasm - causes clotting

16

how are aneurysms walled off from the main circulation to prevent re-bleeding?

clipping of aneurysm
endovascular techniques - platinum coils to plug aneurysm

17

what causes delayed ischaemia after a subarachnoid haemorrhage?

inflammatory chemicals cause irritation of other vessels
vessels spasm and constrict - cause a stroke

18

how soon after a subarachnoid haemorrhage does delayed ischaemia usually occur?

days 3-12

19

what symptoms usually present if a patient has developed delayed ischaemia?

altered conscious level
focal neurological deficit

20

what drug can be given to reduce the chances of vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage?

nimodipine - Ca2+ channel blocker

21

a good fluid intake should be maintained after a subarachnoid haemorrhage - what is meant by "triple H" therapy?

hypervolaemia - central line fluids
hypertension - give inotropes
haemodilution (dilute the blood)

22

ischaemic areas of the brain appear dark on CT, but what are any hyperintense lesions inside this section?

secondary bleeding into dead brain

23

what consequence of a subarachnoid haemorrhage can cause hydrocephalus?

inflammatory products from the bleed can block either CSF pathways or arachnoid granulations

24

how is hydrocephalus treated?

external ventricular drain (EVD)
VP shunt

25

what symptoms indicates a patient who has had a recent subarachnoid haemorrhage may be developing hydrocephalus?

headache getting worse again 1 week after event
decreased conscious level if raised ICP has decreased cerebral perfusion

26

how can a subarachnoid bleed cause a hyponatraemia?

hypothalamic axis is impaired after bleed
SIADH occurs - water retention, sodium dilution, hyponatraemia (cerebral salt wasting)

27

patients with hyponatraemia post subarachnoid haemorrhage should be fluid restricted - true or false?

false
encourage normal fluid intake
give fludrocortisone to offload fluid by preserve Na

28

anticonvulsant prophylaxis should be given in subarachnoid haemorrhage - true or false?

true

29

what is the basic summary of SAH treatment?

bed rest, analgesia, anti-emetic, IV fluids

30

what name is given to a bleed straight into brain parenchyma?

intracerebral bleed

31

what are the most common causes of an intracerebral bleed?

hypertension (some due to aneurysm or AVM)

32

how do intracerebral haemorrhages usually present?

headache (not as sudden as SAH)
focal neurological deficit (haemorrhagic stroke)
decreased consciousness level (raised ICP due to bleed decreases cerebral perfusion)

33

what investigations are used in intracerebral haemorrhage?

CT scan - urgent if decreased conscious level
angiography if suspicion of underlying vascular anomaly

34

when should patients with an intracerebral haemorrhage be treated?

surgical evacuation of haematoma if losing consciousness
treatment of underlying abnormality if applicable

35

what types of cerebral clots have poor prognosis?

large basal ganglia or thalamic clot
major focal deficit or deep coma

36

what is meant by an intraventricular haemorrhage?

rupture of a subarachnoid or intracerebral bleed into ventricle

37

what area on CT scan is most sensitive to seeing intraventricular haemorrhage?

occipital wall of lateral ventricles (due to pt lying on back)

38

what symptoms do arterio-venouos malformations (AVMs) usually cause?

seizures
bleeding
headache (due to high arterial pressure in brain)
steal syndrome (pooling of arterial blood away from normal vessels causing ischaemia)

39

how can AVMs be treated?

surgery (draining vein clipped)
endovascular embolisation (adjunct to surgery)
stereotactic radiotherapy (gamma rays closes it up)

40

how to AVMs appear on an angiogram?

storm cloud appearance

41

what types of drugs make surgery high risk on certain patients?

antiplatelets - aspirin, clopidogrel
anticoagulants - warfarin, DOACs