intro to oncology/pharmacology Flashcards Preview

PT3 Oncology > intro to oncology/pharmacology > Flashcards

Flashcards in intro to oncology/pharmacology Deck (45):
1

why are rates in cancer death decreasing

-prevention
-early detection

2

traits of cancer cells

-increased mutation rate
-replicate in absence of growth signal
-resist apoptosis
-contact independence
-epidermal mesenchymal transformation
-vascularize
-telomere extension

3

4 steps of carcinogenesis

-initiation
-promotion
-conversion/transformation
-progression

4

oncogene

mutated gene that leads to abnormal protein which drives malignant growth
"gain of function"

5

tumor suppressor gene

regulate and inhibit inappropriate cellular growth and proliferation
"loss of function"

6

in myelogenous leukemia bcr-abl does what

tells cell to grow independently of signaling

7

where does bcr-abl come from

piece of chromosome 9 gets put on chromosome 22

8

main tumor suppressor gene

p53

9

p53 action

-enforces negative regulation
-allows cell to halt growth to repair and make corrections
-inactivation allows for mutation

10

tests for breast screening

-self exam
-mammography

11

tests for colon/rectal screening

-FOBT/FIT
-flex sigmoidoscopy
-colonoscopy

12

tests for prostate screening

digital rectal exam/PSA

13

tests for cervical screening

pap smear

14

tests for endometrial screening

risk/symptoms only

15

7 warning signs of cancer

-Change in bowel or bladder habits
-A sore that does not heal
-Unusual bleeding or discharge
-Thickening or lump
-Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
-Obvious change in wart or mole
-Nagging cough or hoarseness

16

what do we need in cancer diagnosis before starting treatment

biopsy

17

TNM classification

-Tumor size
-Nodal involvement
-Metastases

18

stage I

localized tumor

19

stage 2 and 3

local and regional extension

20

stage 4

distant metastases

21

treatment modalities (pillars of cancer care)

surgery
radiation
chemotherapy
biological/targeted
immunotherapy

22

treatments for local control

surgery
radiation

23

complete response

disappearance of all cancer w/o evidence of new disease for at least 1 month after

24

partial response

50% or greater decrease in tumor size or objective tumor markers and no evidence of new disease within 1 month

25

stable disease

neither grows or shrinks by 25%

26

progression of cancer

25% increase in tumor size or development of new lesions

27

two types of toxicities

-dose related toxicity
-cumulative toxicity (each dose increases odds)

28

absolute neutrophil count equations

-WBC x PMNs+bands
-WBC x neutrophils
-WBC x granulocyte

29

BSA equation

= sqrt((ht x wt)/3600)

30

ClCr equation

((140-age) x weight) / SCr x 72

*0.85 for female

31

IBW equation for male

50 + 2.3(inches >5 feet)

32

IBW equation for females

45.5 + 2.3(inches >5 feet)

33

salvage chemotherapy

chemo given after relapse has occurred

34

doubling time

time to double cell population

35

growth fraction

fraction of cells in cell cycle

36

surgery is needed for what type of doubling time cancers

long doubling time

37

cancers with short doubling time

-burkitt's lymphoma
-choriocarcioma
-ALL
-hodgkin's disease

38

cancers that can be treated with a single drug

burkitt's lymphoma
choriocarcioma

39

how tumor location in relation to vessels affects drug efficacy

cancer further away form blood supply makes it more difficult to get drugs to treat it

40

mechanisms of resistance to chemotherapy

-decrease in cellular uptake or increased efflux of drugs
-increased proficiency of repair of DNA
-increase in levels of target enzyme
-alterations in target enzyme
-decrease in drug activation

41

drug therapy outcomes are limited by

-metabolic capacity of liver and kidney
-ability to produce blood cells
-ability of GI tract to recover

42

hematologic toxicities of cancer drugs

anemia
thrombocytopenia
neutropenia

43

length of time to recover for rapid recovery drugs

17-21 days after therapy

44

length of time to recover for delayed recovery drugs

42-50 days after therapy

45

two broad categories of toxicity that cancer drugs show

dose related
cumulative