Irregular Verbs, Wrong Words, and Flags Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Irregular Verbs, Wrong Words, and Flags Deck (90)
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What should you study directly to prepare for the sentence correction questions on the SAT?

Build direct knowledge in these areas for SAT sentence correction:

  • irregular verbs
  • verb-prepostion idioms
  • mistaken words
  • flags for other errors


Which common error in SAT writing involves misuse of a verb form?

A common verb form error involves confusion of past participle for a simple past form.

I swum the hundred meters in record time.
Should be:  I swam...
Only use "swum" with "have", "has" or "had".


Find the verb error in this sentence?

It just so happened that Carrie didn't recognize the bank robber until she seen him in profile.

"Seen" is an incorrect form here.  It should read...

...until she saw him in profile.



What are the three forms of verbs called in English?

Three verb forms in English:

  • present
  • past
  • past participle


How is the past participle form different from the present and the past forms in the way it is used as a verb?

Don't worry about him; he has fallen asleep already. (present perfect)

Your boss told you just last week that he had had enough of your insolence.  (past perfect)

Past participles are always paired with helping verbs and are used to form present perfect and past perfect tenses.

The other two forms stand alone without helping verbs.
He falls in love a lot.

She has a few first-rate qualities.
The baby fell asleep.
Your boss had enough of your insolence, so he fired you.


How can participle forms be used in non-verb phrases in a sentence?

She's a rising star.

Jumping out of the window, Count Olaf and his henchman escape the lumbermill.

Participle forms can be used as adjectives or in modifying phrases.


Where is a participle being used as an adjective here?

Before she had heard of her father's disgrace, she had always worn his army watch, even though it was broken.

"Broken" is a participle form describing the condition of the wrist watch. 


Find the participle in this sentence that is not used as a verb.

Visibly shaken by the horrific battlefield scene, Laura sobbed uncontrollably for over three hours.

"Shaken" is used in a participle phrase to detail Laura's appearance that conveys a state of agitation.

Usually present participles are used in this function, but past participles are still correct.


Why is understanding the participle important to doing well on the SAT writing section?

Understanding the participle makes checking for common structural errors MUCH easier.

Participles are the main way the SAT confuses students about run-ons, fragments, and modifying phrases.

(This issue will be addressed in another deck in greater detail.)


What's the first step to being able to handle irregular verb form errors on the SAT?

Start by memorizing the irregular verb forms in this deck.

Most of these you will know, but treat each one of them as a flag to remind you check for the confusion of past with past participle error.  It does appear frequently on the SAT.

In fact, students usually misread, correcting the form without noticing, so this is also an attention to detail type error.  Stay on your toes!


What are the other two verb forms for these five verbs?

  • get
  • fall
  • ride
  • eat
  • give

past / past participle

  • got / gotten
  • fell / fallen
  • rode / ridden
  • ate / eaten
  • gave / given


What are the other two verb forms for these five verbs?

  • ring
  • take
  • shake
  • sing
  • sink

past / past participle

  • rang / rung
  • took / taken
  • shook / shaken
  • sang / sung
  • sank / sunk


What are the other two verb forms for these five verbs?

  • drink
  • begin
  • swim
  • run
  • come

past / past participle

  • drank / drunk
  • began / begun
  • swam / swum
  • ran / run
  • came / come


What are the other two verb forms for these five verbs?

  • do
  • go
  • blow
  • grow
  • know

past / past participle

  • did / done
  • went / gone
  • blew / blown
  • grew / grown
  • knew / known


What are the other two verb forms for these five verbs?

  • throw
  • fly
  • draw
  • awake
  • bear

past / past participle

  • threw / thrown
  • flew / flown
  • drew / drawn
  • awoke / awoken
  • bore / born


What are the other two verb forms for these five verbs?

  • break
  • speak
  • freeze
  • forget
  • rise


past / past participle

  • broke / broken
  • speak / spoken
  • froze / frozen
  • forgot / forgotten
  • rose / risen


What are the other two verb forms for these five verbs?

  • drive
  • write
  • see
  • shrink
  • become

past / past participle

  • drove / driven
  • wrote / written
  • saw / seen
  • shrank / shrunk
  • became / become



What are the other two verb forms for these five verbs?

  • bite
  • choose
  • forego
  • forbid
  • hide

past / past participle

  • bit / bitten
  • chose / chosen
  • forewent / foregone
  • forbade / forbidden
  • hid / hidden



What should you do to confidently indentify wrong word errors in SAT sentence correction?

Study wrong word pairings in this deck.

The better you recognize these as flags to check for wrong word, the quicker you will identify them on the test.


What is the best process for catching wrong word errors on SAT sentence correction?

Process for wrong word errors:

  • As you read the sentence identify words from the study list.
  • Recall the wrong word pair.
  • Check the context carefully.
  • Select the error, or eliminate the distractor and keeping looking.


affect or effect

Which is correct here?

Teaching a class in which a sizeable portion has already mastered the subject has the ( affect, effect ) of distorting the teacher's self assessment.


Almost always, "affect" is a verb and "effect" is a noun. They have similar meanings: "to have an impact on or influence something" and "an impact or an influence."

affect - effect


emigrate or immigrate

Which word is correct here?

Refugees from Bosnia hoped to ( emigrate, immigrate ) to Italy, France, the U. K., the U. S. A, or Canada.


Both words are about immigration, but the direction is opposite.  One immigrates into a country and emigrates out.

Refugees from Bosnia hoped to immigrate to Italy, France, the U. K., the U. S. A....

emigrate - immigrate


allusion or illusion

Which is correct here?

(a)  The actor's ( allusion, illusion ) to the medieval time period in which the play was set by wearing a long velvet cape and carrying a sword.

(b)  Without his medication, the ( hallucination, illusion ) returned to haunt him.

(a) allusion 

"Allusion" means a "hint or a reference", so to allude to is to hint at something.
"Illusion" means "a deceptive vision".

(b) hallucination

"Hallucination" means "seeing something not there".
"Delusion" means "seeing a different reality".

 allusion/illusion, illusion/delusion, illusion/hallucination


allude or elude

Which is correct here?

The baserunner failed to ( allude, elude ) the tag at the plate, and her team lost by one run.


"Elude" means "get away from, avoid capture or contact".
"Allude" (like "allusion") means "refer to [something] usually well-known or historic".

The baserunner failed to elude the tag at...

allude - elude


lay or lie

Which is correct here?

The hidden battalions ( lay, lie ) in wait to ambush the armored column.


"Lay" requires an object: "He lay down his weapon".
"Lie" takes no object: "stretch yourself horizontally onto on a surface." or "say someething false".

Watch out for other forms of these words which further the confusion.

Lay, laid, have/has/had laid, laying

Lie, layed, have/has/had lain, lying


leave or let

Which is correct here?

You need to ( leave, let ) us have more time to research the author.


"Let" means "to allow".
"Leave" means "to part [someone's company] or depart [a location].

leave - let


raise or rise

Which is correct here?

The team captain ( raised, rised ) the standards set for admission to Division I for swimming in sophomore year.


"Raise" means to lift (something).
"Rise" means to get up.

raise - rise


set or sit

Which is correct here?

Paul staggered around the room in a near complete stupor, looking vainly for a place to ( set, sit ) his drink.


"Set" means "put, place, or arrange".
You know what "sit" means.

set - sit


eminent or imminent

Which is correct here?

He rushed to rescue the dog from the ( eminent, imminent ) collapse of the house in the earthquake.


"Imminent" means "expected in the near future".
"Eminent" means "a top person in the field".

"Pre-eminent" may also be confused, since "pre" can mean before like "predict", but it means "THE top person"

eminent - imminent


adverse or averse

Which words are correct here?

(a) He was ( adverse, averse ) to hanging out with her when she was drinking.

(b) The ( adverse, averse ) weather present an extra challenge to the team used to dome conditions.

(a) averse

(b) adverse

"Averse" means "having a strong disgust for".
"Adverse" means "unfavorable".

adverse - averse