Jacksonian Democracy and the Mexican War (1824-1850) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Jacksonian Democracy and the Mexican War (1824-1850) Deck (80)
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1

Commodore ____________ defeated the British at Lake Erie, allowing General William Harrison to go north into Canada and win the Battle of the Thames in the War of 1812.

Oliver Perry.
Perry built a fleet on Lake Erie.

2

Fort McHenry resisted British bombardment in the War of 1812, inspiring Francis Scott Key to write the "_____________ Banner."

Star Spangled.
After the British set fire to Washington DC, they attacked Fort McHenry at Baltimore, MD.

3

In the war of 1812, the British landed on the coast of ________, setting fire to the public buildings of Washington DC.

Maryland.
They set fire to the public buildings in Washington DC, including the Executive Mansion. The Executive Mansion was then repainted white and became the White House.

4

Andrew _______ fought the British and won at the Battle of New Orleans two weeks after a peace treaty had been signed for the War of 1812.

Jackson.
Andrew Jackson fought a much larger force of British at the Battle of New Orleans. Andrew Jackson was a famous general in the war of 1812 who later became President. He was not the same general as "Stonewall" Jackson who fought on the Confederate side in the Civil War.

5

The Treaty of _____ in 1814 ended the War of 1812.

Ghent.
The Treaty of Ghent, signed in Ghent, Belgium, ended the War of 1812. All land won in this war was restored to the pre-war owners.

6

The first protective tariff in US History was passed in the year ____.

1816.
It was passed in 1816 due to the flood of cheap British products entering the country.

7

The Rush-Bagot Treaty was an agreement between England and the US not to have armed fleets on the Great _____, and is still in effect.

Lakes.
The Rush-Bagot Treaty led to the removal of British and American fleets from the Great Lakes after the War of 1812.

8

In ____, Andrew Jackson led an army into Spanish-controlled Florida and occupied Pensacola, violating international law.

1817.
Andrew Jackson led an army into Florida, and hung two British men he suspected of selling arms to the Indians.

9

In the ____-Onis Treaty signed in 1819, the US got control of Spanish Florida in return for $5 million.

Adam.
The Adam-Onis Treaty stated that the Spanish surrendered their claims to Florida in return for $5 million from the US government.

10

The ______ Doctrine stated that North and South America were no longer open to colonization by European countries.

Monroe.
President Monroe made an announcement known as the Monroe Doctrine in 1823, which in a sense was the United State's declaration of economic independence.

11

_______ vs Madison established the Supreme Court's power to rule on the constitutionality of laws.

Marbury.
Marbury vs Madison, in 1803, was ruled by the first Supreme Court Justice John Marshall.

12

________ vs Peck (1810) was the first time a state law was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.

Fletcher.

13

Dartmouth College v. Woodward limited the power of state governments to control ____________.

Corporations.
In the case Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) the New Hampshire State Legislature had passed laws amending the college charter which specified the college would have 12 trustees. The legislature changed the number to 21 and also appointed 25 overseers and gave the State general supervision of college affairs. The Supreme Court declared the State laws unconstitutional ruling that the laws violated the constitutional clause which prohibits States from passing any law which interferes with the obligation of contracts.

14

Several rulings made by Chief Justice _____________ weakened state powers through cases such as McCulloch v. Maryland and Gibbons v. Ogden.

John Marshall.
Chief Justice John Marshall first established the power of the Supreme Court to rule on the constitutionality of laws enacted by Congress, and then showed the power of federal courts to rule on the actions of individual states as well. For example, in Gibbons v. Ogden, he prevented New York from regulating interstate commerce.

15

McCulloch v. Maryland established that the state does not have the power to regulate a _______ agency.

Federal.
McCulloch vs Maryland was a ruling by John Marshall in 1819.

16

Gibbons vs Ogden was a ruling by John Marshall that only Congress has the right to regulate __________ commerce.

Interstate.
Gibbons vs Ogden in 1824 was in response to a monopoly which New York had granted to Ogden to operate a steamboat between New York and New Jersey.

17

The Missouri Compromise, worked out by Speaker of the House __________, brought Missouri and Maine into the Union as states.

Henry Clay.
The Missouri Compromise brought Missouri in as a slave state, and Maine as a free state. Also, it divided the Louisiana Purchase with a line--slavery would be prohibited in states which came in from above that line.

18

The first state to be formed from the Louisiana Territory was ________.

Missouri.
The Missouri Territory applied for statehood in 1819, and resulted in the Missouri Compromise.

19

Robert Fulton made the first _________ in 1807.

Steamboat.
Robert Fulton's steamboat, the Clermont, was built in 1807.

20

The ________ Road, which connected Cumberland, Maryland, and Wheeling, Virginia, linking the Potomac and Ohio Rivers, was built in 1818.

National.
The National Road was financed by the federal government.

21

The Erie Canal connected the ______ River with Lake Erie, and was the first canal built in the United States.

Hudson.
The Erie Canal was built in 1825.

22

By 1830, New York City was the US's _______ city.

Largest.
New York City was a large center for trade and business and dominated the domestic cotton market.

23

Samuel Slater built the first _______ mill in the US based on plans he memorized from English designs.

Textile.
Samuel Slater built the first textile mill--this was a big step in the rise of factories in the US.

24

In 1793 an American, Eli Whitney, invented the ______ gin.

Cotton.
This was an engine that separated the fibers of raw cotton from the seeds and enabled a single slave to do what had previously required the hand labor of fifty slaves.

25

Eli Whitney developed not only the cotton gin, but the principle of interchangeable parts, which is used in _______________.

Mass-production.
Eli Whitney's invention of interchangeable parts was first applied towards mass-producing rifles.

26

In 1828, the first organized strike occurred in __________.

New Jersey.
Child workers started the first organized strike in the US in 1828.

27

The Missouri Compromise brought Missouri into the Union as a _____ state.

Slave.
Missouri came in as a slave state, and Maine entered as a free state. Also, under the Missouri Compromise, slavery was prohibited in states north of the 36 degrees 30 minutes north latitude line, with the exception of Missouri. This Compromise was later repealed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

28

The best known American writer in the United States in the early 1800's was _________________.

Washington Irving.
Washington Irving, who wrote stories such as Legend of Sleepy Hollow and Rip Van Winkle, was the best known American author. At that time, people mostly read books imported from Europe.

29

In 1805, History of the Revolution was published by _________________.

Mercy Otis Warren.
Mercy Otis Warren published a multi-volume book, the History of the Revolution.

30

The Second Great _________ began in 1801 in Kentucky in a religious "camp meeting."

Awakening.
The Second Great Awakening began in 1801, and led to a religious revival in the United States. The First Great Awakening was a series of religious revivals which occurred between 1720-1740. A leading preacher of the First Great Awakening was Jonathan Edwards, who preached the famous sermon "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" in 1741. A Calvinist preacher, he spoke on how dangerously close to hell all the people were, in this well-known example of fire and brimstone preaching. This excerpt from the sermon gives a good idea of what the sermon was like: "God has laid himself under no obligation, by any promise to keep any natural man out of hell one moment."