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Flashcards in The Newly Formed United States ( 1787-1824) Deck (80)
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The Declaration of ____________ was adopted by Congress on July 4, 1776. It was written by Thomas Jefferson, and summarized principles of human freedom and popular government.

The Declaration of Independence was written by Thomas Jefferson and stated the common political ideas of the American people.


In March 1776, Washington finally forced the British to leave Boston by placing cannons taken from Fort ___________ on a hill outside the city.

Using oxen and sleds, the colonial army had dragged cannons from Fort Ticonderoga to Boston over the winter. Washington used these cannons to force the British to leave Boston.


After forcing the British to leave Boston, Washington experienced a string of _______. His army was demoralized and falling apart, but a major victory at Trenton, NJ on Christmas night, 1776, saved his army.

Washington launched a surprise attack on the Hessians (Germans fighting for the British) at Trenton, New Jersey while they were still drunk on Christmas night.


The ______ joined the colonists in the war against England, sending arms and money, and later troops, to America.

France openly joined the colonists after the Battle of Saratoga, having decided that the colonists might be able to win the war after all. They did this to get back at their old enemy, England not because they valued freedom. The Spanish and the Dutch also joined the war a few months after the French.


The British strategy was to end the war by 1777 by dividing the colonies into two. This effort was led by General ________, until he was defeated at Saratoga and surrendered his entire army.

General Burgoyne led an army down from Canada, retaking Fort Ticonderoga, and heading towards New York City. At Saratoga, he was defeated by Benedict Arnold and General Gates. This was a major victory, because it convinced the French to openly support the American effort.


While British General Burgoyne was defeated at Saratoga, General Howe captured the American capital, ____________, forcing Congress to move to another city, and resulting in Washington spending the winter at Valley Forge.

General Howe captured Philadelphia and spent the winter there, forcing Congress to flee to Lancaster and then later set up in York, Pennsylvania.


After General Howe captured Philadelphia, he was relieved by General _______, whose new strategy involved capturing the South.

General Clinton decided to focus on capturing the South, which rumors said contained many people loyal to Britain, known as Loyalists.


In the South, Clinton and __________ took Georgia and South Carolina with ease, until forces led by Nathaniel Greene recaptured South Carolina.

Washington appointed Nathaniel Greene to command the colonial forces in the South. Greene was victorious in crushing British opposition in South Carolina. Cornwallis then abandoned the South and led his forces into Virginia.


After Nathaniel Greene retook South Carolina from the British, Cornwallis moved up into Virginia, where he took up a defensive position at ________, Virginia.

Cornwallis, following Clinton's orders, stayed in Yorktown. He ended up surrendering when Washington, with the aid of French fleet and army, surrounded his forces in Yorktown.


The Revolutionary War ended after defeating Cornwallis at ________ with the Treaty of Paris of 1783.

The Treaty of Paris of 1783 stated that the major European countries recognized the United States as a nation.


The initial government of the United States was outlined in the Articles of _____________, establishing a weak national government which could not levy taxes, raise troops, or regulate commerce.

The Articles of Confederation involved a unicameral Congress, and required unanimous approval of all the states to undergo amendment.


The Articles of _____________, established the first government of the United States after the Revolutionary War, and gave the federal government very limited powers-- the ability to make war and treaties with other countries.

The Articles of Confederation provided for a government with no executive or judiciary branch, only a legislature. It did not give the federal government the power to impose taxes, or regulate trade; its power was limited to making war, alliances, and treaties with other countries. It was replaced by the Constitution in 1789.


Under the Articles of Confederation, the national government was unable to collect taxes, and the country fell into financial trouble. The Newburgh Conspiracy was a plan by some to use the ____ to force the states to give up more power.

The Newburgh Conspiracy was a movement by some who wanted a strong national government to use the army to force the states to relinquish some power. It was stopped by Washington, who appealed to his men.


An attempt to ammend the Articles of Confederations so that the government could levy taxes was blocked by ____________.

Rhode Island.
Rhode Island alone turned down the amendment. Under the Articles of Confederation unanimous approval was required to make an amendment.


The ______________ of 1785 was how Congress controlled the splitting up of land in the Northwest. It provided for the distribution of land in units called townships.

Land Ordinance.
The Land Ordinance of 1785 was also how Congress hoped to make some money; they ended up selling huge areas of land for mere pennies per acre to land companies.


The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 provided government for the Northwest, stated the requirements for becoming a recognized _____, and included a bill of rights. Also, it prohibited slavery north of the Ohio River.

The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 followed the Land Ordinance of 1785 in defining how the Northwest would be settled and governed.


The Jay-Gardoqui Negotiations in 1785 was an effort by John Jay to create a treaty with Spanish minister Gardoqui that would help the US break out of its economic depression by offering profitable commercial __________.

The Jay-Gardoqui Negotiations were turned down by Congress since it showed little concern for the West and South by closing the Mississippi River to the transportation of goods.


In 1787, the same year the Constitutional Convention met in ____________, the Northwest Ordinance was passed to provide government for the territory northwest of the Ohio River.

The Northwest Ordinance was passed in 1787 by the Continental Congress, while the Constitutional Convention was in session in Philadelphia.


Thomas Jefferson's definition of human rights in the Declaration of Independence was borrowed from __________.

John Locke.
Jefferson took this definition from John Locke--a European philosopher of freedom and natural rights.


_____________ has been called the "Father of the Constitution."

James Madison.
James Madison came up with the "Virginia Plan," which called for an executive branch and two houses of Congress based on population. Madison asked Edmund Randolph, governor of Virginia to present his plan.


The __________ plan called for a congress with one house, with equal representation from all states.

New Jersey.
The New Jersey Plan had the small states in mind, demanding equal representation from each state.


The _____ compromise was finally agreed upon when forming the Constitution, and provided for two houses of Congress, one with two Senators for each state, and the House of Representatives based on state population.

This was known as the Great Compromise, and combined Madison's Virginia Plan with the New Jersey Plan.


The Three-fifths compromise resulted in ______ being counted as three-fifths of a person for calculating Congressional representation and taxing for each state.

The Three-Fifths Compromise was made during the writing of the Constitution.


The power of Congress to _______ the President is an example of checks and balances.

This power is an example of checks and balances. Other examples are the President's veto power, and the Supreme Court's power of judicial review.


The new Constitution required 9 states to ratify it to replace the Articles of _____________.



The new Constitution required nine states to ratify it, but two states which refused to ratify resulted in delays in the Constitution taking effect. These two states were ________ and Virginia.

New York.
New York and Virginia, two of the largest states in the Union, refused to ratify the Constitution. Finally, they were persuaded largely by the promise to ratify a Bill of Rights which would guarantee the rights of citizens.


Even after Virginia and New York decided to ratify the Constitution, two states refused to ratify. These states were North Carolina and ____________.

Rhode Island.
North Carolina and Rhode Island refused to ratify, Rhode Island going as far as to ignore the entire ratification attempt. They eventually gave into pressure after Congress threatened to treat them as foreigners.


In 1787, representatives met in Philadelphia to discuss the plans for a Constitution to replace the Articles of Confederation. This meeting was known as the Constitutional __________.



Those who _________ the ratification of the Constitution called themselves Federalists.



Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay wrote a series of newspaper articles known as the __________ Papers in an effort to convince people to support the Constitution.

They wrote the Federalist Papers, which explained the Constitution and how it prevented abuses of power.