Lecture 1: Introduction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 1: Introduction Deck (8):

What parts of the brain consist of grey matter?

The cortical and subcortical areas.


What parts of the brain consist of white matter?

The fiber tracts.


Distinguish the following terms: tractus, fascicle, funiculus, capsula and lemniscus.

Tractus: bundle of nerve fibers.
Fascicle: small bundle of nerve fibers.
Funiculus: bundle of one or more fascicles.
Capsula: ascending and descending fibers.
Lemniscus: bundle of secondary, sensory fibers.


Name the three planes of section and describe them.

Horizontal (section on horizontal line), coronal (section on vertical line, from ear to ear) and saggital (section on vertical line, orthogonal to face).


Which parts of the nervous system belong to the central and which to the peripheral nervous system?

Central: brain (including brainstem) and spinal cord.
Peripheral: cranial nerves and ganglia, spinal nerves, dorsal root ganglia and plexus, sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves and ganglia, enteric nervous system.


The central nervous system can be subdivided into four major parts, including several subparts. Name all of them.

(1) Prosencephalon, including Telencephalon and Diencephalon.
(2) Mesencephalon (midbrain)
(3) Rhombencephalon (hindbrain), including the metencephalon (Pons and Cerebellum) and myelencephalon (Medulla)
(4) Spinal Cord


Describe the anatomy of the grey and white matter for the brain and spinal cord, respectively.

In the brain, the grey matter is the outer layer, surrounding white matter. In the spinal cord, this pattern is the exact opposite with white matter outside and grey matter inside.


Describe the process of tentorial herniation and its symptoms.

In case of tentorial herniation, the parahippocampal gyrus and the uncus are pushed through the tentorial notch of the cranium. As a result, the temporal lobe presses on the brainstem and CN III. Symptoms include:
- headache
- decreased mental status
- blown pupil
- ptosis (drooping of upper eye-lid)
- loss of medial gaze
- decerebrate posturing (abnormal posturing)
- Cushing's triad (irregular, decreased respiration, bradycardia and systolic hypertension)