Lecture 12 - Arabidopsis as a model system - Gray Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 12 - Arabidopsis as a model system - Gray Deck (9)
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1

What are some examples of model systems in plants?

Tomato - fleshy fruit development, disease resistance
Barley - good genetic resources
Pea - Mendel
Snapdragon - developmental genetics
Maize
Petunia

2

What are the problems with these systems?

Big plants
Complex genomes
We want something with a smaller genome

3

Why was maize important for genetics?

First plant to have genetic map - we discovered lots from it.
Eg carotenoid biosynthesis, bioethanol, transposons.

4

What was petunia used for?

Discovery of RNAi - attempts to overexpress chalcone synthase gene (CHS) led to silencing and thus loss of colour (anthocyanin biosynthesis)
Also used for studying petal formation, shoot branching, transposons.

5

What is Arabidopsis thaliana?

Small weed that grows in temperate climates. Tiny plant. Small genome. Diploid - many of our crops are polyploid and complex. Good model organism.

6

What were some obvious beneficial traits of Arab?

Small
Simple to grow
Self-fertilising
Diploid
20,000 progeny from single plant
Short life cycle - approx 8 weeks
Many polymorphisms between accessions

7

What were some fortuitous traits?

Easily transformed - agro mediated. This can be biolistic or by dipping.
Small genome 135mb vs human 3000mb

8

Are there many mutants?

Yes, lots of mutants for each gene. Open and sharing community.

9

What has Arab done for science?

Genome-wide T-DNA collections. When T-DNA enters a genome it can create mutants (by disrupting genome). So they developed T-DNA as an insertion tool to try to saturate the genome. You can then do reverse PCR to find out where it has gone in.