Flashcards in Lecture 15 And 16 Behavioral Ecology 1 Deck (176)
What is the ethology?
The study of animal behavior from an evolutionary perspective
To gain understanding of a behavior, what should be understood?
Behavior patterns, proximate mechanisms, acquisition of behavior, ultimate causes of behavior
What are proximate mechanisms?
The name given to the neuronal, hormonal and anatomical mechanisms that underlie behavior
What are most behaviors the result of?
Complex interactions between inherited anatomical and physiological mechanisms and the ability to modify behaviors as the result of experience.
What are the ultimate causes of behavior?
The selection pressures that shaped its evolution
What describes most animal behavior?
What is stereotypic behavior?
Always the same
Give an example of sterotypic, species specific behavior
Web spinning behavior of spiders- species can be identified by pattern of web
When may an animal fail to perform a genetically controlled behavior?
When environmental conditions needed to stimulate it are absent
Why might all individuals behave in the same way not due to genetically controlled behavior?
Because they all imitated the same teacher
How do genes cause a behavior?
Genes do not encode behavior
Gene products such as enzymes affect behavior by setting in motion interactions that underlie proximate mechanisms
How can genetic and environmental influences on the development of behavior be distinguished?
What are deprivation experiments?
Investigators rear young so its deprived of all experience relevant of the behavior under study
What can be assumed if a behavior is still displayed during deprivation experiments?
The behavior develops without opportunities to learn it
What are genetic experiments?
Investigators alter the genomes of organisms by interbreeding closely related species, by comparing individuals that differ by only one or a few genes, or by knocking out/inserting specific genes
What were the conditions used for the deprivation experiment?
Newborn tree squirrel was reared in isolation on a liquid diet, in a cage without soil/particulate matter
What was the newborn squirrel given and what happened next?
Squirrel ran around cage and then resorted to stereotypic digging movements, then placed the nut in an imaginary hole and refilled the hole
What did the squirrel experiment show?
Heredity underlies food-storing behavior of this tree squirrel species, but is only expressed when environmental conditions allowed
What is selective breeding used for?
Select for anatomical traits and behavior
What does selective breeding provide an insight into?
Effects of genetic constitution on behavior
How did Konrad Lorenz investigate courtship displays of duck species?
What duck species are closely related and can interbreed?
Mallards, teals, pintails, gadwalls
How does the courtship displays of ducks work?
Male duck performs a choreographed water ballet typical of his species
Female accepts his advance only if entire display is successful and completed, skill judges quality
What happened when Lorenz crossbred different species of duck?
Hybrid offspring expressed elements of each parents courtship display in new combinations, as well as elements from neither species repitoire
What did Lorenz's hybridization experiments show?
Stereotypic motor patterns of courtship displays are inherited
What did the observation that females are not interested in males performing hybrid displays give evidence to?
Sexual selection helped shape genetically determined behaviors
How have gene mutations that effect behaviors been studied?
On fruit flies and rodents using gene knockout and gene silencing techniques
What gene was studied in gene knockout experiments on rodents?
What behavior does a female house mice perform with an active fosB gene?
Gather her pups together, keep them warm and nurse them