Lecture 8- Reconstructing and using phylogenies II Flashcards Preview

Ecology and diversity > Lecture 8- Reconstructing and using phylogenies II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 8- Reconstructing and using phylogenies II Deck (51)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is it called when plants reproduce by mating with another individual?

Outcrossing

2

What do many outcrossing species have?

Mechanisms to prevent self fertilization

3

What are species who have mechanisms to prevent self fertilization called?

Self- incompatible

4

What are species who regularly fertilize themselves with their own pollen called?

Selfing species
They are self compatible

5

How can it be established how many times self compatibility has evolved in a group of plants?

Conducting a phylogenetic analysis of outcrossing and selfing species

6

In what genus and family has the evolution of fertilization mechanisms been examined?

Linanthus (genus)
Phlox (family)

7

Linanthus is a group of plants with _______ breeding systems and pollinating systems.

Diverse

8

What does petals does the outcrossing/self incompatible species in Linanthus have and what is it pollinated by?

Long petals
Pollinated by long tongue flies

9

What petals does the self-compatible species of Linanthus have?

Short petals

10

How many species of Linanthus were involved in the phylogenetic study?

12

11

What information was used to reconstruct the phylogeny of Linanthus?

Nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences

12

How was it determined what species were self compatible?

Artificially pollinating flowers with the plants own pollen or with pollen from other individuals and observing if viable seeds were formed

13

Self incompatibility is:
a.Derived state
b.Ancestral state
In the genus Linanthus

B
Ancestral state

14

How is the self incompatibility found in the Linanthus genus unusual?

Multiple origins of self-incompatibility has not been found in any other flowering plant family

15

Why is it easier to change from self-incompatible to self-compatibility than the reverse change?

Self incompatibility depends on physiological mechanisms in both pollen and stigma and requires the presence of at least 3 alleles

16

How is the physical aspect of self incompatibility in Linanthus unusual?

The pollen rejection site is the stigma
Site of pollen rejection vary greatly among other plant families

17

How many times has self incompatibility evolved in Linanthus?

3 times

18

Why were the different self compatible Linanthus species that were classified as one species now classified as separate species?

Phylogenetic analysis using ribosomal DNA showed them to be members of distinct lineages

19

What are zoonotic diseases?

Diseases caused by infectious organisms that have been transferred to humans from another animal host

20

What did phylogenetic analysis of immunodeficiency viruses show?

Humans acquired these viruses from two different hosts

21

Where was HIV-1 acquired from?

Chimpanzees

22

Where was HIV-2 acquired from?

Mangabeys

23

Where is the HIV-1 form of the virus more common and why?

Human populations in central Africa
Where chimpanzees are hunted for food

24

Where is the HIV-2 form of the virus more common and why?

West Africa
Sooty mangabeys are hunted for food

25

What does the distribution of HIV viruses infer about how HIV entered the human population?

Viruses entered human population through hunters who cut themselves while skinning chimpanzees/ sooty mangabeys

26

What is the genus that swordtail fish belong in?

Xiphophorus

27

What do male swordtails have that is associated with reproductive success?

Long, colorful extensions of the tail

28

Male swordtails with long swords are more likely to mate successfully than males with short swords. This is an example of...

Sexual selection

29

What is the sensory exploitation hypothesis?

Swords exploit a preexisting bias in the sensory system of the females

30

What was used to identify the closest relatives of swordtails before the evolution of the sword?

A phylogeny