Flashcards in Lecture 8- Reconstructing and using phylogenies II Deck (51)
What is it called when plants reproduce by mating with another individual?
What do many outcrossing species have?
Mechanisms to prevent self fertilization
What are species who have mechanisms to prevent self fertilization called?
What are species who regularly fertilize themselves with their own pollen called?
They are self compatible
How can it be established how many times self compatibility has evolved in a group of plants?
Conducting a phylogenetic analysis of outcrossing and selfing species
In what genus and family has the evolution of fertilization mechanisms been examined?
Linanthus is a group of plants with _______ breeding systems and pollinating systems.
What does petals does the outcrossing/self incompatible species in Linanthus have and what is it pollinated by?
Pollinated by long tongue flies
What petals does the self-compatible species of Linanthus have?
How many species of Linanthus were involved in the phylogenetic study?
What information was used to reconstruct the phylogeny of Linanthus?
Nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences
How was it determined what species were self compatible?
Artificially pollinating flowers with the plants own pollen or with pollen from other individuals and observing if viable seeds were formed
Self incompatibility is:
In the genus Linanthus
How is the self incompatibility found in the Linanthus genus unusual?
Multiple origins of self-incompatibility has not been found in any other flowering plant family
Why is it easier to change from self-incompatible to self-compatibility than the reverse change?
Self incompatibility depends on physiological mechanisms in both pollen and stigma and requires the presence of at least 3 alleles
How is the physical aspect of self incompatibility in Linanthus unusual?
The pollen rejection site is the stigma
Site of pollen rejection vary greatly among other plant families
How many times has self incompatibility evolved in Linanthus?
Why were the different self compatible Linanthus species that were classified as one species now classified as separate species?
Phylogenetic analysis using ribosomal DNA showed them to be members of distinct lineages
What are zoonotic diseases?
Diseases caused by infectious organisms that have been transferred to humans from another animal host
What did phylogenetic analysis of immunodeficiency viruses show?
Humans acquired these viruses from two different hosts
Where was HIV-1 acquired from?
Where was HIV-2 acquired from?
Where is the HIV-1 form of the virus more common and why?
Human populations in central Africa
Where chimpanzees are hunted for food
Where is the HIV-2 form of the virus more common and why?
Sooty mangabeys are hunted for food
What does the distribution of HIV viruses infer about how HIV entered the human population?
Viruses entered human population through hunters who cut themselves while skinning chimpanzees/ sooty mangabeys
What is the genus that swordtail fish belong in?
What do male swordtails have that is associated with reproductive success?
Long, colorful extensions of the tail
Male swordtails with long swords are more likely to mate successfully than males with short swords. This is an example of...
What is the sensory exploitation hypothesis?
Swords exploit a preexisting bias in the sensory system of the females