Lecture 2- fundamentals of distribution Flashcards Preview

Population Ecology > Lecture 2- fundamentals of distribution > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 2- fundamentals of distribution Deck (23)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are distribution and range?

General terms that are used to decribe where a group of organisms occurs, and can be described at many spacial scales

2

What is an example of a large spacial scale?

geographic-total global area where the species occurs

3

What is an example of an intermediate spatial scale?

Regional- Where a species occurs within a given boundary (ie. deer in BC)

4

What is an example of a small spatial scale?

Niche- Specific ways that an organism fits into an ecosystem

5

What are temporal scales?

Varieties of time scales.

6

What is a Diel scale?

Species' range changes over a 24 hour period

7

What is seasonal?

Variations in range throughout a year

8

What is annual?

variations in range over multiple years

9

What is species adaption?

When a species increases it tolerance to some environmental factor. It is a result of natural selection

10

What are behavioral adaptions?

adaptions to attract a mate, adaptions in diet, adaptions in shelter

11

What are morphological adaptions?

Adaptions related to an organisms physical structure. ex. elephants have wrinkled skin to increase heat loss with more surface area

12

What are physiological adaptions?

adaptions relating to an organisms inner workings. heat conservasion, energ and nutrient conservation, adaptions for changing sex

13

What does natural selection entail?

1. Pops ususally produce a surplus of offspring (Survival)
2. traits vary among individuals
3. many traits are inherited from parents
4. traits better suited for reproduction and survival will maximize fitness and persist over time

14

What does evolution entail?

Change over time in a popultions inherited characteristics

15

What is a technique for identifying adaptions in plant populations?

Reciprocal transplant experiments

16

How are distributions esablished?

distributions are determined by where in the world a species has evolved

17

What can limit a species distribution

Characteristics of a landscape. many environmental fctors determine whether a species can successfully establish itself

18

What is dispersal ability?

relative ability of a species to move away from their place of origin into a new habitat or area in which they survive and reproduce.

19

What is habitat selection (preference)?

Active behavior of animals in selecting the most valuable sites (feed, breed, raise young) even though it can survive in other areas

20

What is insufficient time?

Given more time, a species may expand its range through dispersal (which is considered natural range expansion when humans do not aid dispersal

21

What are some Abiotic environmental factors limiting dispersal?

Climate, rainfall, elemental concentrations, pH, salinity, soils

22

What are some biotic environmental factors limiting dispersal?

Predators, parasites, disease, competitors, or species that provide some type of benefit

23

Why are controls important in experiments?

to compare experimental conditions with the natural process and variations.