Flashcards in Lecture 2- fundamentals of distribution Deck (23)
What are distribution and range?
General terms that are used to decribe where a group of organisms occurs, and can be described at many spacial scales
What is an example of a large spacial scale?
geographic-total global area where the species occurs
What is an example of an intermediate spatial scale?
Regional- Where a species occurs within a given boundary (ie. deer in BC)
What is an example of a small spatial scale?
Niche- Specific ways that an organism fits into an ecosystem
What are temporal scales?
Varieties of time scales.
What is a Diel scale?
Species' range changes over a 24 hour period
What is seasonal?
Variations in range throughout a year
What is annual?
variations in range over multiple years
What is species adaption?
When a species increases it tolerance to some environmental factor. It is a result of natural selection
What are behavioral adaptions?
adaptions to attract a mate, adaptions in diet, adaptions in shelter
What are morphological adaptions?
Adaptions related to an organisms physical structure. ex. elephants have wrinkled skin to increase heat loss with more surface area
What are physiological adaptions?
adaptions relating to an organisms inner workings. heat conservasion, energ and nutrient conservation, adaptions for changing sex
What does natural selection entail?
1. Pops ususally produce a surplus of offspring (Survival)
2. traits vary among individuals
3. many traits are inherited from parents
4. traits better suited for reproduction and survival will maximize fitness and persist over time
What does evolution entail?
Change over time in a popultions inherited characteristics
What is a technique for identifying adaptions in plant populations?
Reciprocal transplant experiments
How are distributions esablished?
distributions are determined by where in the world a species has evolved
What can limit a species distribution
Characteristics of a landscape. many environmental fctors determine whether a species can successfully establish itself
What is dispersal ability?
relative ability of a species to move away from their place of origin into a new habitat or area in which they survive and reproduce.
What is habitat selection (preference)?
Active behavior of animals in selecting the most valuable sites (feed, breed, raise young) even though it can survive in other areas
What is insufficient time?
Given more time, a species may expand its range through dispersal (which is considered natural range expansion when humans do not aid dispersal
What are some Abiotic environmental factors limiting dispersal?
Climate, rainfall, elemental concentrations, pH, salinity, soils
What are some biotic environmental factors limiting dispersal?
Predators, parasites, disease, competitors, or species that provide some type of benefit