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Flashcards in Mental Retardation Deck (16)
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What is the essential feature of mental retardation?

significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning (approximately 70 or below on an individually administered IQ test)


What is the B criterion for MR?

Concurrent deficits or impairments in present adaptive functioning in at least two of the following areas:

  • communication
  • self-care
  • home living
  • social/interpersonal skills
  • use of community resources
  • self-direction
  • functional academic skills
  • work
  • leisure
  • health
  • safety


What is criterion C for MR?

onset before age 18


Impairments in _______ rather than _______ are usually the presenting symptoms in individuals with MR.

adaptive functioning; IQ


How is adaptive functioning defined with respect to mental retardation?

how effectively individuals cope with common life demands and how well they meet the standards of personal independence expected of someone in their particular age group, sociocultural background, and community setting


According to the DSM, what are the IQ levels for each severity of mental retardation?

  • Mild: 50-55 to approximately 70
  • Moderate: 35-40 to 50-55
  • Severe: 20-25 to 35-40
  • Profound: Below 20 or 25


In addition to mild, moderate, severe, and profound, what other degree of severity is found within mental retardation?

mental retardation, severity unspecified

used when there is a strong presumption of mental retardation but the person's intelligence is untestable by standard tests (with individuals too impaired or uncooperative, or with infants)


What severity level constitutes the largest segment of those with mental retardation?

mild mental retardation

makes up about 85% of the MR population


What are characteristics of an individual with mild mental retardation?

  • develop social/communication skills in preschool years
  • minimal sensorimotor impairment
  • undistinguishable in some ways from normal population
  • acquire academic skills up to sixth-grade level (or so)
  • achieve social/vocational skills as adults
  • may need supervision or assistance in social or economically stressful times
  • can usually live successfully in community


What percentage of people with mental retardation have moderate mental retardation?

about 10%


What are characteristics of people with moderate mental retardation?

  • acquire communication skills in early childhood years
  • profit from vocational training
  • can care for self with moderate supervision
  • unlikely to progress beyond 2nd grade academic level
  • majority able to perform unskilled or semi-skilled work under supervision
  • adapt well to community, usually in supervised settings


What percentage of the MR population is severely mentally retarded?

about 3-4%


What are characteristics of those with severe mental retardation?

  • acquire little to no communicative speech in early childhood
  • may learn to talk later, may learn elementary self-care skills
  • may not learn alphabet, but can sight read "survival" words
  • may perform simple tasks when supervised as adults
  • most adapt well to community in group homes or with family, but may require specialized care


what percentage of the MR population is diagnosed as profound?



What are characteristics of people with profound mental retardation?

  • most have identified neurological condition accounting for MR
  • considerable sensorimorot impairments in early childhood
  • development may occur in highly structured environment
  • constant aid and supervision required from individualized caregiver
  • some may perform simple tasks when closely supervised and sheltered