What is the essential feature of mental retardation?
significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning (approximately 70 or below on an individually administered IQ test)
What is the B criterion for MR?
Concurrent deficits or impairments in present adaptive functioning in at least two of the following areas:
- home living
- social/interpersonal skills
- use of community resources
- functional academic skills
What is criterion C for MR?
onset before age 18
Impairments in _______ rather than _______ are usually the presenting symptoms in individuals with MR.
adaptive functioning; IQ
How is adaptive functioning defined with respect to mental retardation?
how effectively individuals cope with common life demands and how well they meet the standards of personal independence expected of someone in their particular age group, sociocultural background, and community setting
According to the DSM, what are the IQ levels for each severity of mental retardation?
Mild: 50-55 to approximately 70
Moderate: 35-40 to 50-55
Severe: 20-25 to 35-40
Profound: Below 20 or 25
In addition to mild, moderate, severe, and profound, what other degree of severity is found within mental retardation?
mental retardation, severity unspecified
used when there is a strong presumption of mental retardation but the person's intelligence is untestable by standard tests (with individuals too impaired or uncooperative, or with infants)
What severity level constitutes the largest segment of those with mental retardation?
mild mental retardation
makes up about 85% of the MR population
What are characteristics of an individual with mild mental retardation?
develop social/communication skills in preschool years
minimal sensorimotor impairment
undistinguishable in some ways from normal population
acquire academic skills up to sixth-grade level (or so)
achieve social/vocational skills as adults
may need supervision or assistance in social or economically stressful times
can usually live successfully in community
What percentage of people with mental retardation have moderate mental retardation?
What are characteristics of people with moderate mental retardation?
acquire communication skills in early childhood years
profit from vocational training
can care for self with moderate supervision
unlikely to progress beyond 2nd grade academic level
majority able to perform unskilled or semi-skilled work under supervision
adapt well to community, usually in supervised settings
What percentage of the MR population is severely mentally retarded?
What are characteristics of those with severe mental retardation?
acquire little to no communicative speech in early childhood
may learn to talk later, may learn elementary self-care skills
may not learn alphabet, but can sight read "survival" words
may perform simple tasks when supervised as adults
most adapt well to community in group homes or with family, but may require specialized care
what percentage of the MR population is diagnosed as profound?
What are characteristics of people with profound mental retardation?