What is a personality disorder?
an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that
- deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual'sculture
- is pervasive and inflexible
- has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood
- is stable over time
- leads to distress or impairment
What is the essential feature of schizotypal personality disorder?
a pattern of acute discomfort in close relationships, cognitive or perceptual distortions, and eccentricities of behavior
What are the A1 and A2 criteria of schizotypal personality disorder?
A1. ideas of reference (excluding delusions of reference)
A2. odd beliefs or magical thinking that influences behavior and is inconsistent with subcultural norms (including superstitiousness, belief in clairvoyance, telepathy, or "sixth sense;" bizarre fantasies or preoccupations in children and adolescents)
What are the A3 and A4 criteria for schizotypal personality disorder?
A3. unusual perceptual experiences, including bodily illusions
A4. odd thinking and speech (including vague, circumstantial, metaphorical, overelaborate, or stereotyped)
What are the A5 and A6 criteria for schizotypal personality disorder?
A5. suspicious or paranoid ideation (ex: people at work are trying to undermine me)
A6. inappropriate or constricted affect
What are the A7 and A8 criteria for schizotypal personality disorder?
A7. behavior or appearance that is odd, eccentric, or peculiar
A8. lack of close firends or confidants other than first-degree relatives
What is the A9 criterion for schizotypal personality disorder?
A9. excessive social anxiety that does not diminish with familiarity and tends to be associated with paranoid fears rather than negative judgment about self
How many A criteria must be met to be diagnosed with schizotypal personality disorder?
five or more
What is the B criterion for schizotypal personality disorder?
does not occur exclusively during the course of schizophrenia, a mood disorder woth psychotic features, another psychotic disorder, or a pervasive developmental disorder, but may be premorbid to schizophrenia
When admitted to a clinical setting, 30-50% of people with schizotypal personality disorder have a concurrent diagnosis of what?
major depressive disorder
What other personality disorders co-occur frequently with schizotypal personality disorder?
schizoid personality disorder
paranoid personality disorder
avoidant personality disorder
borderline personality disorder
Do people with schizotypal personality disorder frequently go on to develop schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders?
No, schizotypal personality disorder has a relatively stable course.
How can schizotypal personality disorder be distinguished from delusional disorder, schizophrenia, and mood disorder with psychotic features?
Schizotypal personality disorder is not characterized by a period of psychotic symptoms. While schizotypal persoanlity disorder can be an additional diagnosis, the symptoms must have been present before the onset of psychotic symptoms and persist after psychotic symptoms have waned.
How can schizotypal personality disorder be differentiated from paranoid or schizoid personality disorders?
Schizotypal personality disorder features cognitive or perceptual distortions and marked eccentricity or oddness.
How can schizotypal personality disorder be differentiated from avoidant personality disorder?
In avoidant personality disorder, lack of close relationships results from the fear of rejection, but in schizotypal personality disorder, there is a lack of desire for personal relationships and persistent detachment.
How can schizotypal personality disorder be distinguished from narcissistic personality disorder?
In narcissistic personality disorder, suspiciousness, social withdrawal, and alientation are caused by fear of having imperfections or flaws revealed.
How can schizotypal personality disorder be differentiated from borderline personality disorder?
Psychotic-like symptoms of borderline personality disorder are more closely related to affective shifts in response to stress and are usually more dissociative. Schizotypal personality disorder psychotic-like symptoms are more enduring, worsen under stress, but are less likely to be invariably associated with pronounced affective symptoms.