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Flashcards in Metabolism, Enzymes Deck (76):
1

Metabolism in Mitochondria

1. Fatty acid oxidation (β-oxidation)
2. Acetyl-CoA production
3. TCA
4. Oxidative phosphorylation
5. ketogenesis

2

Cytoplasm metalbolism

1. Protein synthesis (RER)
2. Glycolysis
3. Fatty acid synthesis
4. Steroid synthesis (SER)
5. Cholesterol synthesis
6. HMP shunt

3

Metabolism in both cytoplasm and mitochondria

1. Urea cycle
2. Heme synthesis
3. Gluconeogenesis

4

Kinases

Enzyme that uses ATP to add high energy phosphate group onto substrate

5

Phosphorylase

Enzyme that adds inorganic phosphate onto substrate without ATP

5

Dehydrogenase

Catalyzes oxidation-reduction reactions (pyruvate dehydrogenase)

6

Phosphatese

Enzyme that removes phosphate group from substrate

7

Hydroxylase

Adds hydroxyl group (-OH) onto substrate

9

Carboxylase

Transfer CO2 groups with the help of biotin

9

Site of HMP shunt

Cytoplasma

10

Mutase

Relocates a functional group within a molecule (vit b12 dependent methylmalonyl coa mutase)

11

Site of heme synthesis

Both cytoplasm and mitochondria

12

Acetyl coa production site

Mitochondria

13

Urea cycle site

Both cytoplasm and mitochondria

14

Gluconeogenesis

Both mitochondria and cytoplasm

15

Rate-determining enzyme of glycolysis

Phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1)

16

Rate-determining enzyme of gluconeogenesis

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate

17

Rate-determining enzyme oF TCA

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

18

Rate-determining enzyme of glycogenesis

Glycogen synthase

19

Rate-determining enzyme of glycogenolysis

Glycogen phosphorylase

20

Rate-determining enzyme of HMP shunt

Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)

21

Rate-determining enzyme of De novo pyrimidine synthesis

Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II

22

Rate-determining enzyme of De novo purine synthesis

Glutamine - PRPP - amidotransferase

23

Rate-determining enzyme of Urea cycle

Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I

24

Rate-determining enzyme of fatty acid synthesis

Acetyl coa carboxylase

25

Rate-determining enzyme of fatty acid oxidation

Carnitine acyltransferase I

26

Rate-determining enzyme of ketogenesis

HMG-Coa synthase

27

Rate-determining enzyme of Cholesterol synthesis

HMG-Coa reductase

29

Rte-determining enzymes of metabolic processes - means

Irreversible

29

Phosphorofructokinase regulators

AMP+ ATP- Citrate- Fructose-2,6-biphosphate +

30

Fructose 1.6 biphosphatase regulators

ATP+ AMP - citrate + Fructose 2.6 biphosphatate -

31

Isocitrate dehydrogenase reaction

Isocitrate to a-ketoglutarate

32

Fructose 1.6 biphosphatase reaction

Fructose 1.6 biphosphate to fructose 6 phosphate

33

Isocitrate dehydrogenase regulators

ADP+ ATP- NADH -

34

Glycogen phosphorylase regulators

1. Epinephrin + 2. ATP - 3. Glucagon + 4. ADP+
5. Insulin - 6. Glucose -6-phosphate -

35

Glycogen synthase regulators

1. Glucose - phosphate +
2. Insulin +
3. Epinephrin -
4. Glucagon -
5. CORTISOL +

36

G6PD reaction

Glucose-6-phosphate to 6-phosphogluconolactone

37

G6PD regulators

NADP(+) +
NADPH -

38

Rate determining enzyme of De novo pyrimidine synthesis

Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase type II

39

Rate-determining enzyme of De novo purine synthesis

Glutamine - PRPP - amidotransferase

40

Glutamine - PRPP - amidotransferase regulators

AMP-
IMP-
GMP-

41

Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I regulators

N-acetylgutamate +

42

HMG - coa reductase (cholesterol synthesis)

Insulin +
T4 +
Glucagon -
Cholesterol -

43

HMG reductase reaction

HMG-coa to mevalonate

44

Acetyl coa carboxylase regulators

Insulin +
Citrate +
Glicagon-
PALMITOYL - COA -

45

Carnitine acyltranserase I (fatty acid oxidation) regulator

Malonyl - coa -

46

ATP production

Malate-aspartate shuttle - 32 ATP
Glycerol-3-P shuttle - 30 ATP
Anaerobic glycolysis - 2 ATP

47

Arsenic/ATP production

Arsenic causes glycolysis to produce zero net ATP/replace Pi

48

ATP function

ATP hydrolysis can be couples to energetically unfavorable reactions

50

Malate-aspartate shuttle - tissue and ATP number

Heart and liver (32ATP)

50

Nicotinamides:

NAD+ (vitamin B3)
NADP+

51

Glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle - tissue and ATP number

Muscle (30ATP)

52

Flavin nucleotides

FAD+ (vitamin B2)

53

NAD+ is generally used in

Catabolic process to carry reducing equivalents away as NADH

54

NADPH is a product of

HMP shunt

55

NADPH is used in

1. Anabolic process (steroids and fatty acid synthesis) as a supply of reducing equivalents
2. Respiratory burst
3. Cytochrome P-450
4. Glutathiome reductase

56

ATP carries

Phosphorl groups

57

Coa , lipoamide carry

Acyl groups

58

NADH, NADPH, FADH2 carry

Electrons

59

Biotin carries

CO2

60

SAM carries

CH3 groups

61

Tetrahydrofolate carries

1-carbon unit

62

TPP carries

Aldehydes

63

First step of glycolysis

Phosphorylation of glucose (glucose -6-P)

64

First step for glycogen synthesis

Phosphorylation of glucose (glucose -6-P)

65

Glucose to glucose-6-P (enzyme)

Hexokinase or glucokinase depending on tissue.
Low glucose concentration - hexokinase
High glucose concentration - glucokinase

66

Hexokinase differ to glucokinase in

1. Location 2. Km. 3. Vm. 4. Induction by insulin 5. Feedback inhibited by glucose-6-P 6. Gene mutation associated with maturity - onset diabetes of young

68

Hexokinase vs Glucokinase according to location

Hexokinase --> Most tissues bit not liver and cell pancreas
Glucokinase --> Liver and β cells of pancreas

69

Hexokinase vs Glucokinase according to Km

Lower --> hexokinase
Glucokinase --> higher

69

Hexokinase or glucokinase is induced by insulin

Glucokinase

70

Hexokinase vs Glucokinase according to Vmax

hexokinase --> Lower
Glucokinase --> higher

71

Hexokinase or glucokinase is feedback inhibited by glucose -6-P

Hexokinase

72

Hexokinase or glucokinase is associated with gene mutation of MODY

Glucokinase

73

Hexokinase or glucokinase is associated fructose -6-P negative regulation

Glucokinase

74

Hexokinase regulation

Glucose 6-P -

75

Glucokinase regulation

Fructose-6-P -