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Flashcards in vitamins Deck (31):
1

B vitamins complex deficiencies often result in

1. Dermatitis
2. Glossitis
3. Diarrhea

2

Water soluble vitamins and their name

B1 --> Thiamine
B2 --> Riboflavin
B3 --> niacin
B5 --> pantothenic acid
B6 --> pyridoxine
B7 --> biotin
B9 --> folate
B12 --> cobolamin
C --> ascorbic acid

3

Vitamin A ( retinol) function

1. Antioxidant 2. Constituent of normal visual pigment (retinal) 3. Essential of normal epithelial cells into specialized tissue (pancr cells, mucus secreting cells) 4. Prevent squamous metaplasia

4

Vitamin A (retinol) is used to

1. Treat measles (all trans retinoic)
2. Treat AML (M3) (all trans retinoic)
3. Topically for wrinkles and acne (oral isotretinoin)

5

Deficiency of vitamin A (retinol)

1. Night blindness (nyctalopia)
2. Dry scaly skin (xerosis cutis)
3. Bitot spots on conjunctiva
4. Corneal degeneration (keratomalacia)
5. Immune suppression

6

Vitamin A (retinol) excess

1. arthralgias 2. Skin changes (scaliness) 3. Alopecia 4. Cerebral edema 5. Pseudo-tumor cerebri 6. Osteoporosis 7. Hepatic toxicity and enlargment
8. Teratogenic (cleft palate, cardiac abnormalities)
if acute --> nausea, vomiting, vertigo, and blurred vision

7

Vitamin D Excess findings

1. Hypercalcemia
2. Hypercalciuria
3. Loss of apettite
4. Stupor

8

Vitamin E vs vitamin B12 deficiency

Neurologic presentation of vit E deficiency may appear similar to B12 deficiency, but without megaloblastic anemia, hypersegmented neutrophils, or increased serum methylmalonic acid

9

Vitamin E function

1. Antioxidant (protect erythrocytes and membranes from free radicals damage
2. Enhance anticoagulant effects of warfarin

10

Vitamin E deficiency

1. Hemolytic anemia
2. Acanthocytosis
3. Muscle weakness
4. Posterior column and spinocerebellar tract demyelination

11

Kwashiorkor clinical picture

Small child with swollen belly

12

Kwashiorkor mechanism (and result in)

Protein malnutrition resulting in skin lesions, edema, liver malfunction (fatty change due to decreased apolipoprotein synthesis)

13

Marasmus (definition and results)

Total calorie malnutrition resulting in:
1. emaciation (tissue and muscle wasting, loss of subcutaneous fat)
2. +/- edema

14

vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) is ancillary treatment for

Methemoglobinemia by reducing Fe3+ to fe2+

15

Vitamin C excess

1. Nausea 2. Vomiting 3. Diarrhea 4. Fatigue 5. Calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis 6. Can increase risk of iron toxicity in in predisposed individuals (transfusions, hereditary hemochromatosis)

16

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency

1. Scurvy
2. Weakened immune response

17

Scurvy - presentation

Swollen gums, bruising, hemarthrosis, anemia, poor wound healing, perifollicular and subperiosteal hemorrhages, corkscrew hair

18

Vitamin B5 deficiency

1. Dermatitis
2. Enteritis
3. Alopecia
4. Adrenal insufficiency

19

Thiamine (vit B1) deficiency

1. Wernicke - korskakoff syndrome
2. Dry beriberi
3. Wet beriberi

20

Dry beriberi

1. Polineuritis
2. Symmetrical muscle wasting

21

Wet beriberi

1. Hight cardiac output failure (dilated cardiomyopathy)
2. Edema

22

Thiamine (vit b1) deficiency seen in

1. Malnutrition
2. Alcoholism (2ry to malnutrition and malabsorption)

23

Wernicke - korsakoff syndrome - symptoms

1. Classic triad (Confusion, opthalmoplegia, ataxia)
2. Confabulation
3. Personality changes
4. Permanent memory loss

24

Vitamin B2 deficiency

1.Cheilosis (inflammation of lips, scaling and fissures at the corners of the mouth)
2. Corneal vascularization

25

Niacin deficiency

1. Glossitis
2. Pellagra (of severe deficiency)

26

Causes of pellagra

1. Hartnup disease (Decreased tryptophan absorption)
2. Malignant carcinoid syndrome (increased tryptophan metabolism)
3. Isoniazid (low B6)

27

Pellagra symptoms

1.Diarrhea
2. Dementia (and hallucinations)
3. Dermatitis (casal necklace (C3.4 dermotome) or hyperpigmentation of sun-exposed limbs)

28

Niacin excess

1. Facial flushing (induce by prostaglandins, not histamine)
2. Hyperglycemia
3. Hyperuricemia

29

Biotin deficiency symptoms

Rare.
Dermatitis, alopecia, enteritis

30

Biotin deficiency caused by

Caused by antibiotic use or excessive ingestion of raw egg whites

31

Folic acid absorption

Jejunum