Flashcards in Minerals Deck (90)
What are the general functions of minerals?
Fluid Balance/Osmotic Pressure
Metabolic Processing of Macronutrients
Describe general mineral metabolism:
Dissolution in liquid frees ionic mineral from the salt form it is consumed in
What influences general mineral absorption:
influenced by food as well as the body's need
What increases mineral absorption?
some proteins or sugars
What decreases mineral absorption?
consuming with binders such as oxalate, phytate & tannins
What foods contain Oxalate binders?
Beans, greens, nuts, berries
What foods contain the Phytate binders?
Whole grains, legumes, seeds
What foods contain Tannins binders?
Tea, coffee, wine, red berries, red beans
How are minerals transported in the body?
They are bound to plasma or specific transport proteins
What regulates tissue uptake of minerals?
Hormones regulate it
How are minerals found in the body?
Free ions in body fluids: Electrolytes
Bound to other minerals as salts: Hydroxyapatite
Bound to organic compounds like proteins: Hemoglobin
Which minerals are considered major minerals?
Which minerals are considered trace minerals?
What are the Functions of Calcium?
Cell Signaling: stored in sarcoplasmic reticulum, released for clotting and muscle contraction
What is the RDA for Calcium?
9-18 yrs: 1300mg/d
What are some of the best sources of Calcium,?
Dairy, non dairy milk, low-oxalate greens: kale, broccoli
What is a deficiency of Calcium called and how does it present?
Hypocalcemia; tetany, osteoporosis
What is a toxicity of Calcium called and how does it present?
Hypercalcemia; calcification of soft tissues, hallucinogens, constipation
**watch for parathyroid tumors in older patients**
What mineral absorption may be impacted by hypercalcemia and how?
Decreased absorption of iron, magnesium, phosphorus and zinc
What are the functions of Phosphorus?
Phosphate in ATP
DNA & RNA
What are some good sources of Phosphorus?
animal producs, dairy, eggs
What is a deficiency of Phosphorus called and how does it present?
Hypophosphatemia; bone loss in those consuming large amounts of aluminum-containing antacids
What is a toxicity of Phosphorus called and how does it present?
Hyperphosphatemia; bone resportion when Ca:P ratio is <1 for a significant amount of time **leads to nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism**
What are the functions of Magnesium?
Muscle relaxation (calcium channel blocker)
Cofactor for 300 enzymes using ATP (stabilizes ATP)
What are some good sources of Magnesium?
Nuts, seeds, legumes, seafood
What is a deficiency of Magnesium called and how does it present?
Hypomagnesemia; muscle weakness, cramps, headaches
What is a toxicity of Magnesium called and how does it present?
No toxicity from foods; supplements & meds cause slurred speech and diarrhea
What are the functions of sodium?
Water balance(MAJOR CATION IN ECF), muscle action(Na+/K+ pumps), nutrient absorption
What are the main sources of sodium?
Table salt, cured meats, canned soup