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Nutrition Final Exam > Minerals > Flashcards

Flashcards in Minerals Deck (90)
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1

What are the general functions of minerals?

Bone
Cell Signaling
Fluid Balance/Osmotic Pressure
Metabolic Processing of Macronutrients
Oxygen Transport

2

Describe general mineral metabolism:

Dissolution in liquid frees ionic mineral from the salt form it is consumed in

3

What influences general mineral absorption:

influenced by food as well as the body's need

4

What increases mineral absorption?

acidic environment
some proteins or sugars

5

What decreases mineral absorption?

consuming with binders such as oxalate, phytate & tannins

6

What foods contain Oxalate binders?

Beans, greens, nuts, berries

7

What foods contain the Phytate binders?

Whole grains, legumes, seeds

8

What foods contain Tannins binders?

Tea, coffee, wine, red berries, red beans

9

How are minerals transported in the body?

They are bound to plasma or specific transport proteins

10

What regulates tissue uptake of minerals?

Hormones regulate it

11

How are minerals found in the body?

Free ions in body fluids: Electrolytes
Bound to other minerals as salts: Hydroxyapatite
Bound to organic compounds like proteins: Hemoglobin

12

Which minerals are considered major minerals?

Calcium
Phosphorus
Potassium
Sodium
Magnesium
Chloride

13

Which minerals are considered trace minerals?

Iron
Copper
Zinc
Iodine
Selenium
Manganese
Molybdenum
Fluoride

14

What are the Functions of Calcium?

Bone
Cell Signaling: stored in sarcoplasmic reticulum, released for clotting and muscle contraction

15

What is the RDA for Calcium?

4-8yrs: 1000mg/d
9-18 yrs: 1300mg/d
19-50yrs: 1000mg/d
>50yrs: 1200mg/d

16

What are some of the best sources of Calcium,?

Dairy, non dairy milk, low-oxalate greens: kale, broccoli

17

What is a deficiency of Calcium called and how does it present?

Hypocalcemia; tetany, osteoporosis

18

What is a toxicity of Calcium called and how does it present?

Hypercalcemia; calcification of soft tissues, hallucinogens, constipation
**watch for parathyroid tumors in older patients**

19

What mineral absorption may be impacted by hypercalcemia and how?

Decreased absorption of iron, magnesium, phosphorus and zinc

20

What are the functions of Phosphorus?

Bone
Phosphate in ATP
cAMP
Phospholipids
DNA & RNA
Buffer

21

What are some good sources of Phosphorus?

animal producs, dairy, eggs

22

What is a deficiency of Phosphorus called and how does it present?

Hypophosphatemia; bone loss in those consuming large amounts of aluminum-containing antacids

23

What is a toxicity of Phosphorus called and how does it present?

Hyperphosphatemia; bone resportion when Ca:P ratio is <1 for a significant amount of time **leads to nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism**

24

What are the functions of Magnesium?

Bone
Muscle relaxation (calcium channel blocker)
Cofactor for 300 enzymes using ATP (stabilizes ATP)

25

What are some good sources of Magnesium?

Nuts, seeds, legumes, seafood

26

What is a deficiency of Magnesium called and how does it present?

Hypomagnesemia; muscle weakness, cramps, headaches

27

What is a toxicity of Magnesium called and how does it present?

No toxicity from foods; supplements & meds cause slurred speech and diarrhea

28

What are the functions of sodium?

Water balance(MAJOR CATION IN ECF), muscle action(Na+/K+ pumps), nutrient absorption

29

What are the main sources of sodium?

Table salt, cured meats, canned soup

30

What is a deficiency of sodium called and how does it present?

Hyponatremia; muscle cramps, seizures (can be caused by head trauma)