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Nutrition Final Exam > Vitamins > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vitamins Deck (61)
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1

Vitamin A: Functions

Vision (rhodopsin), immunity, growth

2

Vitamin A: Sources

Preformed: Animal Products; PrOformed: red/orange/yellow plants & dark green leafy veggies

3

Vitamin A: Deficiency

eye problems: night blindness, xerosis, xeropthalmia, Bitot's Spots

4

What is the #1 nutritional deficiency world wide?

Vitamin A

5

Vitamin A: Toxicity

dry skin, bone pain, hair loss

6

Vitamin D (calciferol): Functions

prohormone, calcium & phosphorus absorption

7

Vitamin D (calciferol): Sources

D3 (cholecalciferol): fortified dairy, fatty fish, hydroxylated in liver and kidneys to fully activate as calcitriol

8

Vitamin D becomes fully activated in which organs and into what compound?

Vitamin D is hydroxylated to Calcitriol in the liver and kidneys

9

Vitamin D (calciferol): Deficiency

Rickets, Autoimmune disease

10

Vitamin D (calciferol): Toxicity

Hypercalcemia

11

Vitamin D (calciferol): RDA

<1 = 400 IU/D; 1-70 = 600 IU/D; >70 = 800 IU/D

12

Vitamin E (Tocopherol): Functions

Antioxidant in plasma membrane

13

Vitamin E (Tocopherol): Sources

Nuts/Seeds, Vegetable Oil, Olive Oil, Peanut Butter

14

Vitamin E (Tocopherol): Deficiency

hemolytic anemia in infants, peripheral neuropathy

15

Vitamin E (Tocopherol): Toxicity

No known toxicity from foods; supplements may thin the blood

16

Vitamin K (Phylloquinone & Menoquinone): Functions

Formation of carboxyglutamates in clotting (fibrinogen pathway) and bone formation (osteocalcin); Side note: carboxyglutamates are calcium-binding sites

17

Vitamin K (Phylloquinone): Sources

Dark green leafy veggies

18

Vitamin K (Menoquinone): Sources

meat, eggs, also produced by gut bacteria

19

Vitamin K (Phylloquinone & Menoquinone): Deficiency

increased blood loss due to lack of clotting, (shots of vitamin K are given to infants at birth to prevent vitamin K-associated bleeding in the brain

20

Vitamin K (Phylloquinone & Menoquinone): Toxicity

None

21

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid): Functions

antioxidant (regenerates vitamin E), required for collagen synthesis (formation of hydroxyproline & hydroxylysine), nonheme iron absorption

22

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid): Sources

citrus fruits, peppers

23

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid): Deficiency

Scurvy

24

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid): Toxicity

Diarrhea

25

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid): RDA is higher in which population?

smokers have higher requirements than non-smokers

26

Thiamin (B1): Functions

coenzyme (TPP/TDP - Thiamin pyrophosphate), noncoenzyme (TTP - Thiamin triphosphate), Required by nervous system

27

Thiamin (B1): Sources

Enriched Grains, meats, legumes; (raw fish contain thiamin degrading enzymes)

28

Thiamin (B1): Deficiency

Fatigue, weakness, Beriberi, Wernicke's Encephalopathy in Alcoholics

Acute beriberi - infants
Wet beriberi - adults
Dry beriberi - older patients (muscle weakness, calf pain, difficulty walking

29

Thiamin (B1): Toxicity

None

30

Riboflavin (B2): Functions

Coenzyme (FAD & FMN) in Krebs and ETC, niacin synthesis (used by dehydrogenases)